Preparation and characterization of Juniperus chinensis extract-loaded polyurethane nanofiber laminate with polyurethane resin on polyethylene terephthalate fabric


To maximize the utility of natural extracts, they must be atomized and mixed with other useful materials to ensure their function is realized. We conducted experiments that involved electrospinning a natural extract in a polymer solution to fuse the extracts in polymer nanofibers. The Juniperus chinensis extracts (JCE) were mixed with a polyurethane (PU) solution to make a nanofiber web (PU/JCE), which was laminated with polyethylene terephthalate at 90, 110, and 130 °C (PU/JCE-LC). We analyzed the morphology, air permeability, water vapor transmission, resistance to water penetration, contact coldness (Qmax), and antibacterial properties of the fabricated PU/JCE nanofiber laminate composites. It was found that as the laminating temperature increased, the air and moisture permeability of the PU/JCE nanofiber laminate decreased, and its water resistance and Qmax increased. Also, the antibacterial test confirmed that the laminate provided antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results reveal that the combination process of electrospinning and laminating can provide an effective way to assign functionalities of natural extracts, which opens up the possibility of imparting a variety of functionalities from nature into polymeric nanofiber.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Scheme 1
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. 1.

    Akindoyo JO, Beg MDH, Ghazali S, Islam MR, Jeyaratnama N, Yuvaraj AR (2016) Polyurethane types, synthesis and applications—a review. RSC Adv 6:114453–114482.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Amini G, Samiee S, Gharehaghaji AA, Hajiani F (2016) Fabrication of polyurethane and nylon 66 hybrid electrospun nanofiber layer for waterproof clothing applications. Adv Polym Technol 35:419–427.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Arai M, Noro Y, Sugimoto K, Endo M (2008) Mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture toughness of CFRP laminates toughened by carbon nanofiber interlayer. Compos Sci Technol 68:516–525.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Cimanga K et al (2002) Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo. J Ethnopharmacol 79:213–220.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Cosentino S, Tuberoso CIG, Pisano B, Satta M, Mascia V, Arzedi E, Palmas F (1999) In-vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian Thymus essential oils. Lett Appl Microbiol 29:130–135.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Datta J, Balas A (2003) DSC and thermal stability investigation of novel poly(ester-ether) glycols and poly(ester-ether)urethanes. J Therm Anal Calorim 74:615–621.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Datta J, Głowińska E (2014) Effect of hydroxylated soybean oil and bio-based propanediol on the structure and thermal properties of synthesized bio-polyurethanes. Ind Crops Prod 61:84–91.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Demir MM, Yilgor I, Yilgor E, Erman B (2002) Electrospinning of polyurethane fibers. Polymer 43:3303–3309.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Dorman HJD, Deans SG (2000) Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol 88:308–316.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Głowińska E, Datta J (2016) Bio polyetherurethane composites with high content of natural ingredients: hydroxylated soybean oil based polyol, bio glycol and microcrystalline cellulose. Cellulose 23:581–592.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Hong KA, Yoo HS, Kim E (2015) Effect of waterborne polyurethane coating on the durability and breathable waterproofing of electrospun nanofiber web-laminated fabrics. Text Res J 85:160–170.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Iwamori S, Miyashita T, Fukuda S, Nozaki S, Sudoh K, Fukuda N (1998) Effect of an interfacial layer on adhesion strength deterioration between a copper thin film and polyimide substrates. Vacuum 51:615–618.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Kim J-S, Lee DS (2000) Thermal properties of electrospun polyesters. Polym J 32:616.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Kim H, Miura Y, Macosko CW (2010) Graphene/polyurethane nanocomposites for improved gas barrier and electrical conductivity. Chem Mater 22:3441–3450.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Kim JH, Lee H, Jatoi AW, Im SS, Lee JS, Kim I-S (2016) Juniperus chinensis extracts loaded PVA nanofiber: enhanced antibacterial activity. Mater Lett 181:367–370.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Kuo Y-H, Shiu L-L (1996) Two new sesquiterpenes, 12-hydroxy-α-longipinene and 15-hydroxyacora-4(14), 8-diene, from the heartwood of Juniperus chinensis LINN. var. tsukusiensis MASAM. Chem Pharm Bull 44:1758–1760.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Lee C-K, Fang J-M, Cheng Y-S (1995) Norditerpenes from Juniperus chinensis. Phytochemistry 39:391–394.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Lee H, Hun Song K, Soon Im S, Jung J-S, Jatoi AW, Kim IS (2016) Fabrication of poly(vinyl alcohol)/cellulose nanofiber derivative from Kenaf Bast fiber via electrospinning. Nanosci Nanotechnol Lett 8:168–172.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Lee H, Koo JM, Sohn D, Kim I-S, Im SS (2016) High thermal stability and high tensile strength terpolyester nanofibers containing biobased monomer: fabrication and characterization. RSC Adv 6:40383–40388.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Lee H, Watanabe K, Kim M, Gopiraman M, Song K-H, Lee JS, Kim IS (2016) Handspinning enabled highly concentrated carbon nanotubes with controlled orientation in nanofibers. Sci Rep 6:37590.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Lee H, Kim M, Sohn D, Kim SH, Oh S-G, Im SS, Kim IS (2017) Electrospun tungsten trioxide nanofibers decorated with palladium oxide nanoparticles exhibiting enhanced photocatalytic activity. RSC Adv 7:6108–6113.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Lee H, Xu G, Kharaghani D, Nishino M, Song KH, Lee JS, Kim IS (2017) Electrospun tri-layered zein/PVP-GO/zein nanofiber mats for providing biphasic drug release profiles. Int J Pharm 531:101–107.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Narayan R, Chattopadhyay DK, Sreedhar B, Raju KVSN, Mallikarjuna NN, Aminabhavi TM (2005) Degradation profiles of polyester-urethane (HP-MDI) and polyester-melamine (HP-HMMM) coatings: a thermal study. J Appl Polym Sci 97:518–526.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Oliveira AL, Lopes RB, Cabral FA, Eberlin MN (2006) Volatile compounds from pitanga fruit (Eugenia uniflora L.). Food Chem 99:1–5.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Oprea S (2002) Effect of structure on the thermal stability of curable polyester urethane urea acrylates. Polym Degrad Stab 75:9–15.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Osman MA, Mittal V, Morbidelli M, Suter UW (2003) Polyurethane adhesive nanocomposites as gas permeation barrier. Macromolecules 36:9851–9858.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Painter CJ (1996) Waterproof, breathable fabric laminates: a perspective from film to market place. J Coat Fabrics 26:107–130.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Sihn S, Kim RY, Huh W, Lee K-H, Roy AK (2008) Improvement of damage resistance in laminated composites with electrospun nano-interlayers. Compos Sci Technol 68:673–683.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Son WK, Youk JH, Park WH (2006) Antimicrobial cellulose acetate nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles. Carbohydr Polym 65:430–434.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Venugopal JR, Sridhar S, Ramakrishna S (2014) Electrospun plant-derived natural biomaterials for tissue engineering. Plant Sci Today 1:151–154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Yoon JW, Park Y, Kim J, Park CH (2017) Multi-jet electrospinning of polystyrene/polyamide 6 blend: thermal and mechanical properties. Fash Text 4:9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning of the Korea Government (NRF-2017R1A2B4009315).

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Jung-soon Lee or Ick Soo Kim.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing financial interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 424 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kim, J., Lee, H., Lee, J. et al. Preparation and characterization of Juniperus chinensis extract-loaded polyurethane nanofiber laminate with polyurethane resin on polyethylene terephthalate fabric. Polym. Bull. 77, 919–928 (2020).

Download citation


  • Juniperus chinensis extracts (JCE)
  • Polyurethane
  • Electrospinning
  • Lamination
  • Antibacterial activity