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Cellulose fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites: impact of cyanoethyl modification on mechanical, thermal and morphological properties

Abstract

This study explores the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of untreated and cyanoethyl-treated kempas wood sawdust cellulose fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. The fiber loadings of the composites were varied from 0 to 20 wt%, with the increment of 5 wt%. The composites were tested for water absorption, and their FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and TGA results were analyzed. The FTIR results show that the fiber treatment reduces the hydroxyl groups in the cellulose, replacing them with the cyanoethyl groups. The TGA results show that the composites are stable up to 324 °C. SEM images of the treated fiber composites showed that there were no visible gaps between fibers and matrix which indicates a strong interfacial bond. From the mechanical tests, 15 wt% fiber loading composite was strongest. Among all the composites, cyanoethyl cellulose fiber unsaturated polyester composites had the most desirable mechanical and thermal properties, whereas the fiber treatment showed the improvement of interfacial bonding.

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Abbreviations

CECFUPC:

Cyanoethyl cellulose fiber unsaturated polyester composites

WF:

Wood fiber

WS:

Wood sawdust

WPF:

Wood pulp fiber

UPC:

Unsaturated polymer composites

UP:

Unsaturated polyester

CF:

Cellulose fiber

CECF:

Cyanoethyl cellulose fibers

WFUPC:

Wood fiber unsaturated polyester composites

CFUPC:

Cellulose fiber unsaturated polyester composites

DWPF:

Delignified wood pulp fiber

AWPF:

Alkaline-treated wood pulp fiber

MEKP:

Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide

WFUPC:

Wood fiber unsaturated polyester composites

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful for the support of Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS).

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Correspondence to Md Rezaur Rahman.

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Rahman, M.R., Hamdan, S., Ngaini, Z.B. et al. Cellulose fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites: impact of cyanoethyl modification on mechanical, thermal and morphological properties. Polym. Bull. 76, 4295–4311 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00289-018-2598-1

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Keywords

  • Fiber Loading
  • Cyanoethyl Cellulose
  • Cyanoethyl Group
  • Unsaturated Polyester Composites (UPC)
  • Strong Interfacial Bond