Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 75, Issue 12, pp 5795–5807 | Cite as

Diisocyanate type effects on flexibility and coating performance of UV-curable hard coatings based on tetrafunctional urethane acrylates

  • Yeun-Kyung Cho
  • Seok-Ho HwangEmail author
Original Paper


Tetrafunctional urethane acrylates based on different types of diisocyanates were synthesized and were then used to prepare a series of five UV-cured hard coatings on polycarbonate (PC) substrate. The coating syrups consisted of the urethane acrylate with reactive hardening acrylic monomer (PETA; pentaerythritol tetraacrylate) and reactive diluent (hydroxyethyl acrylate). Their flexibilities and coating performance were investigated from the tribology results and transparency of the UV-cured hard coatings on PC substrate. The tribological properties showed better result when the content of PETA was increased in all of the UV-cured hard coating series. The surface hardness order of the UV-cured hard coating series was toluene diisocyanate (TDI) > toluene diisocyanate (IPDI) > 4,4′-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) > 4,4′-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate) (HMDI) > 4,4′-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate) (HDI). However, their flexibilities demonstrated by critical bending radius showed the reverse order to the hardness results. All UV-cured hard coatings had a transmittance of over 89% in the visible wavelength range.


Polycarbonate Urethane acrylate Hard coating Flexibility Tribology 


  1. 1.
    Logothetidis S (2008) Flexible organic electronic devices: Materials, process and applications. Mater Sci Eng, B 152:96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Choi MC, Kim Y, Ha CS (2008) Polymers for flexible displays: From material selection to device applications. Prog Polym Sci 33:581–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lee JH, Cho JS, Koh SK, Kim D (2004) Improvement of adhesion between plastic substrates and antireflection layers by ion-assisted reaction. Thin Solid Films 449:147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guo YB, Hong FCN (2003) Adhesion improvements for diamond-like carbon films on polycarbonate and polymethylmethacrylate substrates by ion plating with inductively coupled plasma. Diam Realt Mater 12:946–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    De G, Kundu D (2001) Silver-nanocluster-doped inorganic–organic hybrid coatings on polycarbonate substrates. J Non-Cryst Solids 288:221–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mackenzie JD, Bescher E (2003) Some factors governing the coating of organic polymers by sol-gel derived hybrid materials. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 27:7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    LeGrand DG, Bendler JT (2000) Handbook of polycarbonate science and technology. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hwang HD, Moon JI, Choi JH, Kim HJ, Kim SD, Park JC (2009) Effect of water drying conditions on the surface property and morphology of waterborne UV-curable coatings for engineered flooring. J Ind Eng Chem 15:381–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Patel MM, Patel KI, Patel HB, Parmar JS (2009) UV-curable polyurethane coatings derived from cellulose. Iran Polym J 18:903–915Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Srivastava A, Agarwal D, Mistry S, Singh J (2008) UV curable polyurethane acrylate coatings for metal surfaces. Pigm Resin Technol 37:217–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Allen NS (1996) Photoinitiators for UV and visible curing of coatings: mechanisms and properties. J Photochem Photobio A Chem 100:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee BH, Kim HJ (2006) Influence of isocyanate type of acrylated urethane oligomer and of additives on weathering of UV-cured films. Polym Degrad Stab 91:1025–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Moon JH, Han HS, Shul YG, Jang DH, Ro MD, Yun DS (2007) A study on UV-curable coatings for HD-DVD: Primer and top coats. Prog Org Coat 59:106–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang X, Hu Y, Song L, Xing W, Lu H, Lv P, Jie G (2011) UV-curable waterborne polyurethane acrylate modified with octavinyl POSS for weatherable coating applications. J Polym Res 18:721–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kayaman-Apohan N, Amanoel A, Arsu N, Güngör A (2004) Synthesis and characterization of UV-curable vinyl ether functionalized urethane oligomers. Prog Org Coat 49:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xu G, Shi W (2005) Synthesis and characterization of hyperbranched polyurethane acrylates used as UV curable oligomers for coatings. Prog Org Coat 52:110–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xu J, Pang W, Shi W (2006) Synthesis of UV-curable organic–inorganic hybrid urethane acrylates and properties of cured films. Thin Solid Films 514:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang F, Hu JQ, Tu WP (2008) Study on microstructure of UV-curable polyurethane acrylate films. Prog Org Coat 62:245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu T, Pan X, Wu Y, Zhang T, Zheng Z, Ding X, Peng Y (2012) Synthesis and characterization of UV-curable waterborne polyurethane acrylate possessing perfluorooctanoate side-chains. J Polym Res 19:9741–9749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wei J, Lu R, Liu F (2011) Effect of photosensitive groups on the photoefficiency of polymeric photoinitiators. J Polym Res 18:1001–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ligon-Auer SC, Schwentenwein M, Gorsche C, Stampfl J, Liska R (2016) Toughening of photo-curable polymer networks: a review. Polym Chem 2:257–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barletta M, Pezzola S, Vesco S, Tagliaferri V, Trovalusci F (2014) Experimental evaluation of plowing and scratch hardness of aqueous two-component polyurethane (2K-PUR) coatings on glass and polycarbonate. Porg Org Coat 77:636–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hossain MD, Jia Z, Monteiro MJ (2014) Complex polymer topologies built from tailored multifunctional cyclic polymers. Macromolecules 47:4955–4970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Korich AL, Walker AR, Hincke C, Stevens C, Iovine PM (2010) Synthesis, characterization, and star polymer assembly of boronic acid end-functionalized polycaprolactone. J Polym Sci, Part A: Polym Chem 48:5767–5774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baek SS, Hwang SH (2016) Preparation and adhesion performance of transparent acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives containing menthyl acrylate. Polym Bull 73:687–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hu Y, Zhou S, Wu L (2009) Surface mechanical properties of transparent poly (methyl methacrylate)/zirconia nanocomposites prepared by in situ bulk polymerization. Polymer 50:3609–3616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kim WS, Yun IH, Lee JJ, Jung HT (2010) Evaluation of mechanical interlock effect on adhesion strength of polymer–metal interfaces using micro-patterned surface topography. Int J Adhes Adhes 30:408–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Barletta M, Puopolo M, Rubino G, Tagliaferri V, Vesco S (2016) Hard transparent coatings on thermoplastic polycarbonate. Prog Org Coat 90:178–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu ZW, Chuang CN, Chang WY, Pan YW, Wang SC, Chen SH, Hsieh KH (2017) Multi-functional urethane epoxy acrylates (UEAs) and their visible-light cured UEA/MSMA-colloid silica nanocomposite films as reinforcement on polycarbonate matrix. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 514:178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schwalm R, Häußling L, Reich W, Beck E, Enenkel P, Menzel K (1997) Tuning the mechanical properties of UV coatings towards hard and flexible systems. Prog Org Coat 2:191–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Choudhary V, Agarwal N, Varma IK (2006) Evaluation of bisacrylate terminated epoxy resins as coatings. Prog Org Coat 57:223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials Chemistry and Engineering Laboratory, Department of Polymer Science and EngineeringDankook UniversityYonginRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations