Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 70, Issue 8, pp 2387–2398 | Cite as

On the dispersion of CNTs in polyamide 6 matrix via solution methods: assessment through electrical, rheological, thermal and morphological analyses

  • Fathollah Pourfayaz
  • Seyed-Hassan JafariEmail author
  • Abbas Ali Khodadadi
  • Yadollah Mortazavi
  • Hossein Ali Khonakdar
Polymer Synthesis/Mechanism


In this study, polyamide 6 (PA 6)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites were prepared by different solution methods based on phase inversion, drop-casting and simple evaporation processes. Optical microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to investigate the dispersion states of the nanotubes in PA 6 matrix. The results indicated that the dispersion state of MWCNTs in the nanocomposites prepared by the phase inversion-based method was better than those in the nanocomposites prepared by the other two methods. Electrical, rheological, differential scanning calorimetry and thermo-gravimetric analysis measurements showed that the PA 6/MWCNTs nanocomposites prepared by the phase inversion-based method had higher electrical conductivity, storage modulus, crystallization temperature and thermal stability in comparison with those prepared by the other two methods, attributed to the better dispersion state of MWCNTs. These results confirmed achievement of a good dispersion state of MWCNTs within PA 6 matrix by the phase inversion-based efficient approach.


Carbon nanotubes Polyamide 6 Nanocomposites Dispersion of CNTs Morphology 


  1. 1.
    Moniruzzaman M, Winey KI (2006) Polymer nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes. Macromolecules 39(16):5194–5205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andrews R, Weisenberger MC (2004) Carbon nanotube polymer composites. Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci 8(1):31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sahoo NG, Rana S, Cho JW, Li L, Chan SH (2010) Polymer nanocomposites based on functionalized carbon nanotubes. Prog Polym Sci 35(7):837–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tjong SC (2006) Structural and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites. Mat Sci Eng R 53(3–4):73–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coleman JN, Khan U, Blau WJ, Gun’ko YK (2006) Small but strong: a review of the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube–polymer composites. Carbon 44(9):1624–1652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Breuer O, Sundararaj U (2004) Big returns from small fibers: a review of polymer/carbon nanotube composites. Polym Compos 25(6):630–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xie XL, Mai YW, Zhou XP (2005) Dispersion and alignment of carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix: a review. Mat Sci Eng R 49(4):89–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim SW, Kim T, Kim YS, Choi HS, Lim HJ, Yang SJ, Park CR (2012) Surface modifications for the effective dispersion of carbon nanotubes in solvents and polymers. Carbon 50(1):3–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huang YY, Terentjev EM (2012) Dispersion of carbon nanotubes: mixing, sonication, stabilization, and composite properties. Polymers 4(1):275–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Spitalsky Z, Dimitrios T, Papagelis K, Galiotis C (2010) Carbon nanotube–polymer composites: chemistry, processing, mechanical and electrical properties. Prog Polym Sci 5(3):357–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pourfayaz F, Mortazavi Y, Khodadadi AA, Jafari S-H (2012) Rapid and enhanced functionalization of MWCNTs in a dielectric barrier discharge plasma in presence of diluted CO2. Appl Phys A 106(4):829–836Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pourfayaz F, Khodadadi AA, Mortazavi Y, Jafari S-H (2010) Plasma functionalization of MWCNTs in He followed by NH3 treatment and its application in PMMA based nanocomposites. Plasma Process Polym 7(12):1001–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Baker RW (2004) Membranes and modules. In: Membrane technology and applications. Wiley, California, pp. 97–102Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schroder DK (2006) Resistivity. In: Semiconductor material and device characterization. Wiley, New Jersey, p. 2Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang M, Wang W, Liu T, Zhang WD (2008) Melt rheological properties of nylon 6/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites. Compos Sci Technol 68(12):2498–2502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Du F, Scogna RC, Zhou W, Brand S, Fischer JE, Winey KI (2004) Nanotube networks in polymer nanocomposites: rheology and electrical conductivity. Macromolecules 37(24):9048–9055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang Q, Fang F, Zhao X, Li Y, Zhu M, Chen D (2008) Use of dynamic rheological behavior to estimate the dispersion of carbon nanotubes in carbon nanotube/polymer composites. J Phys Chem B 112(40):12606–12611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim JA, Seong DG, Kang TJ, Youn JR (2006) Effects of surface modification on rheological and mechanical properties of CNT/epoxy composites. Carbon 44(10):1898–1905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Valentini L, Biagiotti J, Lopez-Manchado MA, Santucci S, Kenny JM (2004) Effects of carbon nanotubes on the crystallization behavior of polypropylene. Polym Eng Sci 44(2):303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kim JY, Park HS, Kim SH (2006) Unique nucleation of multi-walled carbon nanotube and poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) nanocomposites during non-isothermal crystallization. Polymer 47(4):1379–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhao C, Hu G, Justice R, Schaefer DW, Zhang S, Yang M, Han CC (2005) Synthesis and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced polyamide 6 via in situ polymerization. Polymer 46(14):5125–5132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xu Y, Ray G, Abdel-Magid B (2006) Thermal behavior of single-walled carbon nanotube polymer–matrix composites. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf 37(1):114–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim JY, Kim SH (2006) Influence of multiwall carbon nanotube on physical properties of poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) nanocomposites. J Polym Sci Polym Phys 44(7):1062–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ma PC, Kim JK, Tang BZ (2007) Effects of silane functionalization on the properties of carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 67(14):2965–2972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ramanathan T, Liu H, Brinson C (2005) Functionalized SWNT/polymer nanocomposites for dramatic property improvement. J Polym Sci Polym Phys 43(17):2269–2279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen GX, Kim HS, Park BH, Yoon JS (2006) Multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced nylon 6 composites. Polymer 47(13):4760–4767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Song YS, Youn JR (2005) Influence of dispersion states of carbon nanotubes on physical properties of epoxy nanocomposites. Carbon 43(7):1378–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kodgire PV, Bhattacharyya AR, Bose S, Gupta N, Kulkarni AR, Misra A (2006) Control of multiwall carbon nanotubes dispersion in polyamide 6 matrix: an assessment through electrical conductivity. Chem Phys Lett 432(4–6):480–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Krause B, Pötschke P, Häußler L (2009) Influence of small scale melt mixing conditions on electrical resistivity of carbon nanotube-polyamide composites. Compos Sci Technol 69(10):1505–1515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bauhofer W, Kovacs JZ (2009) A review and analysis of electrical percolation in carbon nanotube polymer composites. Compos Sci Technol 69(10):1486–1498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Logakis E, Pandis Ch, Peoglos V, Pissis P, Pionteck J, Pötschke P, Mičušík M, Omastová M (2009) Electrical/dielectric properties and conduction mechanism in melt processed polyamide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composites. Polymer 50(21):5103–5111CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fathollah Pourfayaz
    • 1
  • Seyed-Hassan Jafari
    • 2
    Email author
  • Abbas Ali Khodadadi
    • 3
  • Yadollah Mortazavi
    • 4
  • Hossein Ali Khonakdar
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Renewable Energies and Environment, Faculty of New Sciences and TechnologiesUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.School of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  3. 3.Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  4. 4.Nanoelectronics Centre of ExcellenceUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  5. 5.Iran Polymer and Petrochemical InstituteTehranIran

Personalised recommendations