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Impact of Nutritional Profile on Gut Microbiota Diversity in Patients with Celiac Disease

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The pathogenesis of celiac disease (CD) is significantly influenced by gut microbiota. Daily nutritional profile influences the diversity of gut microbiota. This study was aimed to compare the abundance of gut microbiota in CD patients compared to normal control (NC), and to investigate the impact of nutritional factors on their fecal microbiota diversity. In this study, a selected panel of intestinal bacteria was assessed in 31 confirmed CD patients adhering to gluten-free diet (GFD) for more than 6 months and in 20 NC subjects. Stool samples were collected from each participant, DNA was extracted, and absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was carried out. The gut microbiota including Bacteroidetes, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Enterobacteiaceae, Firmicutes, and Lactobacillus were assessed. The quantities of fruits, vegetables, meat, liquids, sugar and gluten-free candy/bread consumption were evaluated using a questionnaire. The proportion of Bifidobacterium, Firmicutes, and Lactobacillus in CD cases was significantly lower than NC (P < 0.005). Significant correlation coefficients between Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus (P < 0.001), and also Firmicutes and Lactobacillus (P < 0.001) were recorded. Moreover, a significant association between medium amount of meat and bean consumptions and low abundance of Lactobacillus and Firmicutes (P = 0.024 and P = 0.027, respectively), and also high amount of bean consumptions and low abundance of Lactobacillus (P = 0.027) in CD were observed. The results showed that meat and bean consumptions could reduce the beneficial bacteria including Firmicutes and Lactobacillus in CD patients. Therefore, changes in the gut microbiota abundance may contribute to dietary changes and unimproved CD symptoms.

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The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding authors on reasonable request.

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We would like to thank the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, for all their support.


This study was supported by the Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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Authors and Affiliations



Conceptualization: M.R.N., and H.D.; Methodology: M.S.K, S.R., and A.M.A.; Validation: M.R.N., M.A.L., and A.K.V.; Formal analysis: A.H., A.Y., and M.R.N.; Original draft preparation: M.S.K., and S.R.; Review and critical editing: A.Y., M.R.N., and A.K.V.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Mohammad Rostami-Nejad or Hossein Dabiri.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

Ethical Approval

This case–control study was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (Project No: IR.SBMU.RIGLD.REC.1395.114).

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Informed consents were obtained from all participants.

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Sama Rezasoltani is equal to first author.

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Soheilian-Khorzoghi, M., Rezasoltani, S., Moheb-Alian, A. et al. Impact of Nutritional Profile on Gut Microbiota Diversity in Patients with Celiac Disease. Curr Microbiol 79, 129 (2022).

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