Analysis of the Microbiota in the Fecal Material of Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta)
We used high-throughput sequencing analysis, which targeted the hypervariable V3–V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, to investigate the microbiota in fecal material from ten wild painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) captured in southeastern Wisconsin. The most predominant bacterial phylum detected in all samples was the Firmicutes (relative abundance for all samples 96.4% to 68.3%). The next most predominant phylum was Bacteroidetes (relative abundance for all samples 23.9% to 7.8%) in eight samples. Fusobacteria (relative abundance for all samples 22.2% to 0%) was the second most predominant in the other two samples.
This research was done as part of a Provost Honors project under the leadership of Zina Haywood, Executive Vice President/Provost. We thank Karina Rebman and Jarod Lorenz for their assistance with turtle surveys. We also thank Jennifer Cumpston and Donald Zakutansky for their enthusiastic support of this research.
This project was supported by funding provided by Gateway Technical College and by the Gateway Foundation.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
- 1.Ernst CH, Lovich JE (2009) Turtles of the United States and Canada, 2nd edn. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, p. 840Google Scholar
- 2.Mitchell JC, McAvoy BV (1990) Enteric bacteria in natural populations of freshwater turtles in Virginia. Virginia J Sci 41:233–242Google Scholar
- 6.McFall-Ngai M, Hadfield MG, Bosch TC, Carey HV, Domazet-Lošo T, Douglas AE, Dubilier N, Eberl G, Fukami T, Gilbert SF, Hentschel U, King N, Kjelleberg S, Knoll AH, Kremer N, Mazmanian SK, Metcalf JL, Nealson K, Pierce NE, Rawls JF, Reid A, Nishino R, Mikami K, Takahashi H, Tomonaga S, Furuse M, Hiramoto T, Aiba Y, Koga Y, Sudo N (2013) Commensal microbiota modulate murine behaviors in a strictly contamination-free environment confirmed by culture-based methods. Neurogastroenterol Motil 25:521–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Koeth RA, Wang Z, Levison BS, Buffa JA, Org E, Sheehy BT, Britt EB, Fu X, Wu Y, Li L, Smith JD, DiDonato JA, Chen J, Li H, Wu GD, Lewis JD, Warrier M, Brown JM, Krauss RM, Tang WH, Bushman FD, Lusis AJ, Hazen SL (2013) Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med 19:576–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Caporaso JG, Kuczynski J, Stombaugh J, Bittinger K, Bushman FD, Costello EK, Fierer N, Peña AG, Goodrich JK, Gordon JI, Huttley GA, Kelley ST, Knights D, Koenig JE, Ley RE, Lozupone CA, McDonald D, Muegge BD, Pirrung M, Reeder J, Sevinsky JR, Turnbaugh PJ, Walters WA, Widmann J, Yatsunenko T, Zaneveld J, Knight R (2010) QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nat Methods 7:335–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Ahasan MS, Waltzek TB, Huerlimann R, Ariel E (2017) Fecal bacterial communities of wild-captured and stranded green turtles (Chelonia mydas) on the great barrier reef. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 1:93Google Scholar
- 20.Meital NO, Hadar N, Omry K (2016) Microbial changes during pregnancy, birth, and infancy. Front Microbiol 7:1031Google Scholar