Strains YIM 102796T and YIM 102701-2T were isolated from the feces of Macaca mulatta and Hylobates hoolock, respectively, living in the Yunnan Wild Animal Park, Yunnan province of China. The two strains were Gram-stain-negative, non-gliding, produced flexirubin pigments, non-flagellated and aerobic bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis indicate that both YIM 102796T and YIM 102701-2T are members of the genus Flavobacterium, closely related to F. ummariense DS-12T (95.9% similarity) and F. ceti 454-2T (93.8% similarity), respectively. The two strains shared 95.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA–DNA hybridization values between the two strains were 76.5% and 22.9%, respectively, indicating that they are separate species. DNA G+C contents of YIM 102796T and YIM 102701-2T were 32.3 mol% and 34.0 mol%, respectively. Strains are able to grow at 4–37 °C, at pH 7.0–8.0 and in 0–2% (w/v) NaCl. Predominant fatty acid constituents (>7 %) were iso-C15:0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and summed feature 9 (iso-C17:1ω9c and/or 10-methylC16:0). Menaquinone 6 is major respiratory quinone. The predominant polar lipids were very similar to each other, comprising phosphatidylethanolamine, and multiple unknown aminolipids and unidentified polar lipids, and an unidentified aminophospholipid. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, it is suggested that the two strains represent two novel Flavobacterium species with strain YIM 102796T (=KCTC 52101T=CCTCC AB 2016015T) as the type strain of Flavobacterium viscosus sp. nov. and strain YIM 102701-2T (=KCTC 52100T=CCTCC AB 2016028T) as the type strain of Flavobacterium tangerina sp. nov.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Bergey DH, Harrison FC, Breed RS, Hammer BW, Huntoon FME (1923) Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore
Bernardet JF, Bowman JP (2006) The genus Flavobacterium. In: Dworkin M, Falkow S, Rosenberg E, Schleifer KH, Stackebrandt E (eds) The prokaryotes: a handbook on the biology of bacteria, vol 7, 3rd edn. Springer, New York, pp 481–531
Bernardet JF, Bowman JP (2010) Genus I. Flavobacterium. In: Krieg NR, Staley JT, Brown DR, Hedlund BP, Paster BJ et al (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 4, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 112–154
Choi JY, Kim JH, Lee PC (2018) Flavobacterium kingsejongi sp. nov., a carotenoid-producing species isolated from Antarctic penguin faeces. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 68:911–916
Collins MD, Jones D (1980) Lipids in the classification and identification of coryneform bacteria containing peptidoglycans based on 2,4-diaminobutyric acid. J Appl Bacteriol 48:459–470
Collins MD, Pirouz T, Goodfellow M, Minnikin DE (1977) Distribution of menaquinones in actinomycetes and Corynebacteria. J Gen Microbiol 100:221–230
Cui XL, Mao PH, Zeng M, Li WJ, Zhang LP et al (2001) Streptimonospora salina gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Nocardiopsaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:357–363
Felsenstein J (1981) Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. J Mol Evol 17:368–376
Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791
Fitch WM (1971) Toward defining the course of evolution: minimum change for a specific tree topology. Syst Zool 20:406–416
Heo J, Kim SH, Lee PC (2013) New insight into the cleavage reaction of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in natural and nonnatural carotenoids. Appl Environ Microbiol 79:3336–3345
Kates M (1986) Techniques of lipidology, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam
Kim JH, Choi BH, Jo M, Kim SC, Lee PC (2014) Flavobacterium faecale sp. nov., an agarase-producing species isolated from stools of Antarctic penguins. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64:2884–2890
Kimura M (1980) Biological sequence alignment editor of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol 16:111–120
Kroppenstedt RM (1982) Separation of bacterial menaquinones by HPLC using reverse phase (RP18) and a silver loaded ion exchanger as stationary phases. J Liq Chromatogr 5:2359–2387
Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K (2016) MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 33:1870–1874
Lata P, Lal D, Lal R (2012) Flavobacterium ummariense sp. nov., isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane-contaminated soil, and emended description of Flavobacterium ceti Vela et al. 2007. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:2674–2679
Meier-Kolthoff JP, Göker M, Spröer C, Klenk HP (2013) When should a DDH experiment be mandatory in microbial taxonomy? Arch Microbiol 195:413–418
Mesbah M, Premachandran U, Whitman WB (1989) Precise measurement of the G+C content of deoxyribonucleic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39:159–167
Reichenbach H (1989) Order I. Cytophagales leadbetter 1974. In: Staley JT, Bryant MP, Pfennig N, Holt JG (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 3. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 2011–2013
Richter M, Rossello-Mora R (2009) Shifting the genomic gold standard for the prokaryotic species definition. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:19126–19131
Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425
Sasser M (1990) Identification of bacteria by gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids. MIDI technical note 101. MIDI Inc, Newark, DE
Sheu SY, Lin YS, Chen WM (2013) Flavobacterium squillarum sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater shrimp culture pond, and emended descriptions of Flavobacterium haoranii, Flavobacterium cauense, Flavobacterium terrae and Flavobacterium aquatile. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:2239–2247
Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The CLUSTALX windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25:4876–4882
Vela AI, Fernandez A, Sánchez-Porro C, Sierra E, Mendez M, Arbelo M, Ventosa A, Domínguez L, Fernández-Garayzábal JF (2007) Flavobacterium ceti sp. nov., isolated from beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:2604–2608
Weber T, Blin K, Duddela S, Krug D, Kim HU, Bruccoleri R, Lee SY, Fischbach MA et al (2015) antiSMASH 3.0—a comprehensive resource for the genome mining of biosynthetic gene clusters. Nucleic Acids Res 43:W237–W243
Xu P, Li WJ, Tang SK, Zhang YQ, Chen GZ, Chen HH, Xu LH, Jiang CL (2005) Naxibacter alkalitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Oxalobacteraceae isolated from China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:1149–1153
Yoon SH, Ha SM, Kwon S, Lim J, Kim Y, Seo H, Chun J (2017) Introducing EzBioCloud: a taxonomically united database of 16S rRNA gene sequences and whole-genome assemblies. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 67:1613–1617
Yoon SH, Ha SM, Lim JM, Kwon SJ, Chun J (2017) A large-scale evaluation of algorithms to calculate average nucleotide identity. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 110:1281–1286
We thank Dr. Fernández-Garayzábal for providing with the reference strains. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 31270001 and 31460005).
Conflict of interest
The authors declared that there are no conflicts of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Nucleotide and Whole-Genome Sequence Accession Numbers
The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains YIM 102796T and YIM 102701-2T are MK184511 and MK184532, respectively. The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the whole-genome sequences of strains YIM 102796T and YIM 102701-2T are RQTJ00000000 and RQVQ00000000, respectively.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Li, G., Chen, X., Li, Y. et al. Flavobacterium viscosus sp. nov. and Flavobacterium tangerina sp. nov., from Primates Feces. Curr Microbiol 76, 818–823 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-019-01692-x