Current Microbiology

, Volume 75, Issue 5, pp 604–610 | Cite as

The Efficacy of a Chewing Gum Containing Phyllanthus emblica Fruit Extract in Improving Oral Health

  • Qian Gao
  • Xuemei Li
  • Haitao Huang
  • Ying Guan
  • Qili Mi
  • Jianhua Yao


Phyllanthus emblica: (PE) fruit extract has pharmacological activity and exert anti-bacterial, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, but few study exist for evaluating its improved effects on the imbalance of oral ecology, which may contribute to series of oral diseases. In this study, an examiner-blinded, randomized, and gum-base-controlled crossover manner was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a sugar-free chewing gum containing PE fruit extract in changing the oral microbiome. Twenty healthy young adults were randomly instructed to chew either PE gum or placebo gum. Saliva samples were collected at baseline and from 0 to 2, 2 to 5, 5 to 10, 10 to 15, and 75 to 80 min after each intervention. The following outcomes were measured: (i) salivary flow rate and pH value; (ii) total bacteria, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) counts; and (iii) volatile sulfur compound (VSC) concentrations. The results showed similar data between groups at baseline and significantly higher salivary flow rates and pH levels in the PE fruit gum group after 0–2, 2–5, and 5–10 min of chewing. Assessment of total bacteria, S. mutans, P. gingivalis, and VSC levels revealed significant differences between the PE and control gum groups at 75–80 min. No adverse effects were registered. The present finding indicated chewing gum containing PE fruit extract stimulated salivary flow and significantly reduced clinical test indexes in the short term. Chewing PE gum might be a safe means of improving oral hygiene.


Author Contributions

JY and QG conceived and designed the experiments; HH contributed significantly to analysis and manuscript preparation; YG and QM performed the experiments; XL proofread the manuscript.


This study was funded by China Tobacco Yunnan Industrial Co., Ltd Science and Technology Project (Grant Numbers 2017JC05 and 2015JC02).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qian Gao
    • 1
  • Xuemei Li
    • 1
  • Haitao Huang
    • 1
  • Ying Guan
    • 1
  • Qili Mi
    • 1
  • Jianhua Yao
    • 1
  1. 1.Technology Center of China Tobacco Yunnan Industrial Co. Ltd.KunmingChina

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