Endophytic Paraconiothyrium sp. from Zingiber officinale Rosc. Displays Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity by Production of Danthron
The bioactivity spectrum of fungal endophytes isolated from Zingiber officinale was analyzed against clinical pathogens and against the phytopathogen Pythium myriotylum, which causes Pythium rot in ginger. One of the isolates GFM13 showed broad bioactivity against various pathogens tested including P. myriotylum. The spore suspension as well as the culture filtrate of the endophytic fungal isolate was found to effectively protect ginger rhizomes from Pythium rot. By molecular identification, the fungal endophyte was identified as Paraconiothyrium sp. The bioactive compound produced by the isolate was separated by bioactivity-guided fractionation and was identified by GC–MS as danthron, an anthraquinone derivative. PCR amplification showed the presence of non-reducing polyketide synthase gene (NR-PKS) in the endophyte GFM13, which is reported to be responsible for the synthesis of anthraquinones in fungi. This is the first report of danthron being produced as the biologically active component of Paraconiothyrium sp. Danthron is reported to have wide pharmaceutical and agronomic applications which include its use as a fungicide in agriculture. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of danthron and the endophytic origin of Paraconiothyrium sp. offer immense applications of the study.
We are thankful to KSCSTE for providing facilities under KSCSTE-SARD Programme. We are also grateful to DBT, Govt of India, for providing instrumentation facility under DBT-MSUB and DBT-RGYI support scheme. The ginger samples were provided by Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, Kerala. The authors also thank the Department of Applied Chemistry, CUSAT, for GC–MS analysis.
This work was supported by DST, Government of India, under DST-PURSE program (Order No.: SR/S9/Z-23/2010/22).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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