Using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing, the microbiota of the fecal material of seven giraffes living in captivity at the Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens, Jacksonville, FL was investigated. In all samples, the most predominant bacterial phylum was the Firmicutes followed by Bacteroidetes. The most predominant fungi were members of the phylum Ascomycota followed by Neocallimastigomycota in five of seven samples. The reverse was true in the other two samples.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
AlZahal O, Valdes EV, McBride BW (2016) Analysis of the distal gut bacterial community by 454-pyrosequencing in captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). Zoo Biol 35:42–50
Bauchop T (1981) The anaerobic fungi in rumen fibre digestion. Agric Environ 6:339–348
Bergmann GT, Craine JM, Robeson MS 2nd, Fierer N (2015) Seasonal shifts in diet and gut microbiota of the American Bison (Bison bison). PLoS ONE 10:e0142409
Bian G, Ma L, Su Y, Zhu W (2013) The microbial community in the feces of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) as determined by barcoded pyrosequencing analysis. PLoS ONE 8:e70103
Callaway TR, Dowd SE, Edrington TS, Anderson RC, Krueger N, Bauer N, Kononoff PJ, Nisbet DJ (2010) Evaluation of bacterial diversity in the rumen and feces of cattle fed different levels of dried distillers grains plus solubles using bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). J Anim Sci 88:3977–3983
Cwyk WM, Canale-Parola E (1979) Treponema succinifaciens sp. nov., an anaerobic spirochete from the swine intestine. Arch Microbiol 122:231–239
Dagar SS, Kumar S, Mudgil P, Singh R, Puniya AK (2011) D1/D2 domain of large-subunit ribosomal DNA for differentiation of Orpinomyces spp. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:6722–6725
Dowd SE, Callaway TR, Sun Y, McKeehan T, Hagevoort RG, Edrington TS (2008) Evaluation of the bacterial diversity in the feces of cattle using bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). BMC Microbiol 8:125–132
Evans NJ, Brown JM, Murray RD, Getty B, Birtles RJ, Hart CA, Carter SD (2011) Characterization of novel bovine gastrointestinal tract Treponema isolates and comparison with bovine digital dermatitis treponemes. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:138–147
Foster ML, Dowd SE, Stephenson C, Steiner JM, Suchodolski JS (2013) Characterization of the fungal microbiome (mycobiome) in fecal samples from dogs. Vet Med Int 2013:658373
Gouba N, Raoult D, Drancourt M (2013) Plant and fungal diversity in gut microbiota as revealed by molecular and culture investigations. PLoS ONE 8:e59474
Gruninger RJ, Puniya AK, Callaghan TM, Edwards JE, Youssef N, Dagar SS, Fliegerova K, Griffith GW, Forster R, Tsang A, McAllister T, Elshahed MS (2014) Anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota): advances in understanding their taxonomy, life cycle, ecology, role and biotechnological potential. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 90:1–17
Guass O, Haapanen LM, Dowd SE, Širović A, McLaughlin RW (2016) Analysis of the microbial diversity in faecal material of the endangered blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 109:1063–1069
Handl S, Dowd SE, Garcia-Mazcorro JF, Steiner JM, Suchodolski JS (2011) Massive parallel 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse fecal bacterial and fungal communities in healthy dogs and cats. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 76:301–310
Hristov AN, Callaway TR, Lee C, Dowd SE (2012) Rumen bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity of dairy cows in response to ingestion of lauric or myristic acid. J Anim Sci 90:4449–4457
Joblin KN, Campbell GP, Richardson AJ, Stewart CS (1989) Fermentation of barley straw by anaerobic rumen bacteria and fungi in axenic culture and in co-culture with methanogens. Lett Appl Microbiol 9:195–197
Kurtzman CP, Robnett CJ (2012) Saitoella coloradoensis sp. nov., a new species of the Ascomycota, subphylum Taphrinomycotina. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 101:795–802
Leuthold BM, Leuthold W (1972) Food habits of giraffe in Tsavo National Park, Kenya. Afr J Ecol 10:129–141
Ley RE, Lozupone CA, Hamady M, Knight R, Gordon JI (2008) Worlds within worlds: evolution of the vertebrate gut microbiota. Nat Rev Microbiol 6:776–788
Liggenstoffer AS, Youssef NH, Couger MB, Elshahed MS (2010) Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of anaerobic gut fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) in ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores. ISME J 4:1225–1235
McFall-Ngai M, Hadfield MG, Bosch TC, Carey HV, Domazet-Lošo T, Douglas AE, Dubilier N, Eberl G, Fukami T, Gilbert SF, Hentschel U, King N, Kjelleberg S, Knoll AH, Kremer N, Mazmanian SK, Metcalf JL, Nealson K, Pierce NE, Rawls JF, Reid A, Nishino R, Mikami K, Takahashi H, Tomonaga S, Furuse M, Hiramoto T, Aiba Y, Koga Y, Sudo N (2013) Commensal microbiota modulate murine behaviors in a strictly contamination-free environment confirmed by culture-based methods. Neurogastroenterol Motil 25:521–528
Muller Z, Bercovitch F, Brand R, Brown D, Brown M, Bolger D, Carter K, Deacon F, Doherty JB, Fennessy J, Fennessy S, Hussein AA, Lee D, Marais A, Strauss M, Tutchings, Wube T (2016) Giraffa camelopardalis. In: ICUN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Nelson TM, Rogers TL, Brown MV (2013) The gut bacterial community of mammals from marine and terrestrial habitats. PLoS ONE 8:e83655
Nonnenmann MW, Bextine B, Dowd SE, Gilmore K, Levin JL (2010) Culture-independent characterization of bacteria and fungi in a poultry bioaerosol using pyrosequencing: a new approach. J Occup Environ Hyg 7:693–699
Nordhoff M, Taras D, Macha M, Tedin K, Busse HJ, Wieler LH (2005) Treponema berlinense sp. nov. and Treponema porcinum sp. nov., novel spirochaetes isolated from porcine faeces. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:1675–1680
Puniya AK, Salem AZM, Kumar S, Dagar SS, Griffith GW, Puniya M, Ravella SR, Kumar N, Dhewa T, Kumar R (2015) Role of live microbial feed supplements with reference to anaerobic fungi in ruminant productivity: a review. J Int Agric 14:550–560
Smibert RM (1984) Genus III Treponema. In: Krieg NR, Holt JG (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 1. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 49–57
Steelman SM, Chowdhary BP, Dowd S, Suchodolski J, Janečka JE (2012) Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes in fecal samples reveals high diversity of hindgut microflora in horses and potential links to chronic laminitis. BMC Vet Res 8:231
Tun HM, Mauroo NF, Yuen CS, Ho JC, Wong MT, Leung FC (2014) Microbial diversity and evidence of novel homoacetogens in the gut of both geriatric and adult giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). PLoS ONE 9:e79902
Wang X, Liu X, Groenewald JZ (2017) Phylogeny of anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota), with contributions from yak in China. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 110:87–103
Wilkinson DM, Ruxton GD (2012) Understanding selection for long necks in different taxa. Biol Rev 87:616–630
Wood TM, Wilson CA, McCrae SI, Joblin KN (1986) A highly active extracellular cellulase from the anaerobic rumen fungus Neocallimastix frontalis. FEMS Microbiol Lett 34:37–40
This research was done as part of a Provost Honors project under the leadership of Zina Haywood, Executive Vice President/Provost. We also thank Kathy Nordhaus and Donald Zakutansky for their enthusiastic support of this research.
IACUC approval was granted by the Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens for the collection of fecal samples. This project was supported by funding provided by Gateway Technical College and by the Gateway Foundation.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that that there is no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Schmidt, J.M., Henken, S., Dowd, S.E. et al. Analysis of the Microbial Diversity in the Fecal Material of Giraffes. Curr Microbiol 75, 323–327 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-017-1383-y
- Fecal material