Defects in Protein Folding Machinery Affect Cell Wall Integrity and Reduce Ethanol Tolerance in S. cerevisiae
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The chaperonin complex CCT/TRiC (chaperonin containing TCP-1/TCP-1 ring complex) participates in the folding of many crucial proteins including actin and tubulin in eukaryotes. Mutations in genes encoding its subunits can affect protein folding and in turn, the physiology of the organism. Stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important in fermentation reactions and operates through overexpression and underexpression of genes, thus altering the protein profile. Defective protein folding machinery can disturb this process. In this study, the response of cct mutants to stress conditions in general and ethanol in specific was investigated. CCT1 mutants showed decreased resistance to different conditions tested including osmotic stress, metal ions, surfactants, reducing and oxidising agents. Cct1-3 mutant with the mutation in the conserved ATP-binding region showed irreversible defects than other mutants. These mutants were found to have inherent cell wall defects and showed decreased ethanol tolerance. This study reveals that cell wall defects and ethanol sensitivity are linked. Genetic and proteomic analyses showed that the yeast genes RPS6A (ribosomal protein), SCL1 (proteasomal subunit) and TDH3 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) on overexpression, improved the growth of cct1-3 mutant on ethanol. We propose the breakdown of common stress response pathways caused by mutations in CCT complex and the resulting scarcity of functional stress-responsive proteins, affecting the cell’s defence against different stress agents in cct mutants. Defective cytoskeleton and perturbed cell wall integrity reduce the ethanol tolerance in the mutants which are rescued by the extragenic suppressors.
KeywordsEthanol Tolerance Stress Agent Cell Wall Integrity Ethanol Stress Ethanol Sensitivity
This study was supported by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) grant (No: 37(1571)/12/EMRII). We thank D. G. Drubin (University of California, USA), T. C. Huffaker (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY) and M.R. Culbertson (University of Wisconsin, USA) for providing the mutant strains. We are also grateful to Fred Sherman, University of Rochester, USA and P. Jayadeva Bhat, IIT Bombay, India for the plasmids.
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Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.
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