A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, chemoheterotrophic, pale-yellow pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated MN1-138T, was isolated from water in the tidal zone at the estuary of Heita river, Iwate, Japan, using an in situ cultivation technique. Preliminary analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate is affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes, and the highest sequence similarities were found with the species Wenyingzhuangia heitensis H-MN17T (97.3 %). The DNA–DNA relatedness between values between strains MN1-138T and W. heitensis H-MN17T was 34 %. The DNA G+C content of strain MN1-138T was determined to be 33.1 mol%; MK-6 was identified as the major menaquinone; and the presence of iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, and iso-C17:0 3-OH as the major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids. A polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified glycolipids, and two unidentified lipids. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Wenyingzhuangia for which the name Wenyingzhuangia aestuarii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of W. aestuarii sp. nov. is MN1-138T (=KCTC 42780T = NBRC 111505T).
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Bernardet JF (2011) Family I. Flavobacteriaceae Reichenbach 1992. In: Krieg NR, Ludwig W, Whitman WB, Hedlund BP, Paster BJ, Staley JT, Ward N, Brown D, Parte A (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 4, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 106–111
Bernardet JF, Nakagawa Y (2006) An introduction to the family Flavobacteriaceae. In: Dworkin M, Falkow S, Rosenberg E, Schleifer KH, Stackebrandt E (eds) The prokaryotes, an evolving electronic resource for the microbiological community, release 3.15. Springer, New York
Bernardet JF, Nakagawa Y, Holmes B (2002) Proposed minimal standards for describing new taxa of the family Flavobacteriaceae and emended description of the family. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:1049–1070
Collins CH, Lyne PM (1984) Microbiological methods, 5th edn. Butterworth, London
Collins MD, Jones D (1981) A note on the separation of natural mixtures of bacterial ubiquinones using reverse-phase partition thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. J Appl Bacteriol 51:129–134
Dittmer JC, Lester RL (1964) A simple, specific spray for the detection of phospholipids on thin-layer chromoatograms. J Lipid Res 15:126–127
Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791
Garrity GM, Holt JG (2001) The road map to the manual. In: Boone DR, Castenholz RW, Garrity GM (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 1, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 119–166
Hansen GH, Sørheim R (1991) Improved method for phenotypical characterization of marine bacteria. J Microbiol Methods 13:231–241
Hayakawa M, Otoguro M, Takeuchi T, Yamazaki T, Iimura Y (2000) Application of a method incorporating differential centrifugation for selective isolation of motile actinomycetes in soil and plant litter. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 78:171–185
Jooste PJ (1985) The taxonomy and significance of Flavobacterium–Cytophaga strains from dairy sources. PhD thesis, University of the Orange Free State, South Africa
Kimura M (1983) The neutral theory of molecular evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Kirchman DL (2002) The ecology of Cytophaga–Flavobacteria in aquatic environments. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 39:91–100
Komagata K, Suzuki K (1987) Lipid and cell-wall analysis in bacterial systematics. Methods Microbiol 19:161–207
Liu Y, Liu LZ, Liu HC, Zhou YG, Qi FJ, Liu ZP (2014) Wenyingzhuangia marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a recirculating mariculture system. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64:469–474
Ludwig W, Klenk HP (2001) Overview: a phylogenetic backbone and taxonomic framework for procaryotic systematics. In: Boone DR, Castenholz RW, Garrity GM (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 1, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 49–66
Marmur J (1961) A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from micro-organisms. J Mol Biol 3:208–218
McCammon SA, Innes BH, Bowman JP, Franzmann PD, Dobson SJ, Holloway PE, Skerratt JH, Nichols PD, Rankin LM (1998) Flavobacterium hibernum sp. nov., a lactose utilizing bacterium from a freshwater Antarctic lake. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:1405–1412
Mesbah M, Premachandran U, Whitman WB (1989) Precise measurement of the G+C content of deoxyribonucleic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39:159–167
Minnikin DE, O’Donnell AG, Goodfellow M, Alderson G, Athalye M, Schaal A, Parlett JH (1984) An integrated procedure for the extraction of bacterial isoprenoid quinines and polar lipids. J Microbiol Methods 2:233–241
O’Sullivan LA, Rinna J, Humphreys G, Weightman AJ, Fry JC (2006) Culturable phylogenetic diversity of the phylum ‘Bacteroidetes’ from river epilithon and coastal water and description of novel members of the family Flavobacteriaceae: Epilithonimonas tenax gen. nov., sp. nov. and Persicivirga xylanidelens gen. nov., sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:169–180
Perry LB (1973) Gliding motility in some non-spreading flexibacteria. J Appl Microbiol 36:227–232
Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425
Sasser M (1990) Identification of bacteria by gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids. MIDI Technical Note 101. MIDI Inc, Newark
Stackebrandt E, Goebel BM (1994) Taxonomic note: a place for DNA–DNA reassociation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:846–849
Suzuki K, Kaneko T, Komagata K (1981) Deoxyribonucleic acid homologies among coryneform bacteria. Int J Syst Bacteriol 31:131–138
Tamura K, Peterson D, Petersen N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using Maximum Likelihood, evolutionary distance, and Maximum Parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 28:2731–2739
Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25:4876–4882
Weisburg WG, Barns SM, Pelletier DA, Lane DJ (1991) 16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol 173:697–703
Worliczek HL, Kämpfer P, Rosengarten R, Tindall RBJ, Busse HJ (2007) Polar lipid and fatty acid profiles-re-vitalizing old approaches as a modern tool for the classification of mycoplasmas? Syst Appl Microbiol 30:355–370
Yamamoto S, Harayama S (1995) PCR amplification and direct sequencing of gyrB genes with universal primers and their application to the detection and taxonomic analysis of Pseudomonas putida strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1104–1109
Yasumoto-Hirose M, Nishijima M, Ngirchechol MK, Kanoh K, Shizuri Y, Miki W (2006) Isolation of marine bacteria by in situ culture on media-supplemented polyurethane foam. Mar Biotechnol (NY) 8:227–237
Yoon J, Kasai H (2015) Wenyingzhuangia heitensis sp. nov., a new species of the family Flavobacteriaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from seawater. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 107:655–661
Yoon J, Oku N, Kasai H (2015) Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 107:1607–1613
Yoon J, Yasumoto-Hirose M, Matsuo Y, Nozawa M, Matsuda S, Kasai H, Yokota A (2007) Pelagicoccus mobilis gen. nov., sp. nov., Pelagicoccus albus sp. nov. and Pelagicoccus litoralis sp. nov., three novel members of subdivision 4 within the phylum ‘Verrucomicrobia’, isolated from seawater by in situ cultivation. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:1377–1385
We are grateful to Midori Nozawa for her technical assistance. This work was supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), and in part by a research grant (2009–2011) of the Institute for Fermentation, Osaka, Japan.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
Transmission electron micrograph of a negatively stained cell of strain MN1-138T. Bar, 500 nm. Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 582 kb)
Thin-layer chromatograms showing the total polar lipid compositions of MN1-138T. Total polar lipids were detected by spraying the plate with molybdophosphoric acid, molybdenum blue, α-naphthol, and ninhydrin. PE: phosphatidylenthanolamine, UL: unidentified lipid, UGL: unidentified glycolipid. Supplementary material 2 (PPTX 930 kb)
Negative results from the API 20E, API 50CH, and API ZYM strips. Supplementary material 3 (PPTX 44 kb)
About this article
Cite this article
Yoon, J., Kasai, H. Wenyingzhuangia aestuarii sp. nov., A Marine Bacterium of the Family Flavobacteriaceae Isolated from an Estuary. Curr Microbiol 72, 397–403 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-015-0965-9
- Marine Agar
- gyrB Gene
- Unidentified Lipid
- Unidentified Glycolipid