Current Microbiology

, 59:554 | Cite as

Tocopherol, Carotene, Phenolic Contents and Antibacterial Properties of Rose Essential Oil, Hydrosol and Absolute

  • Seyhan Ulusoy
  • Gülgün Boşgelmez-Tınaz
  • Hale Seçilmiş-Canbay
Article

Abstract

The antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and total phenolic contents of Rosa damascena Mill. flower extracts (absolute, essential oil and hydrosol) were investigated. The chemical compositions of these extracts were analysed by GC-MS. Phenylethyl alcohol (78.38%) was found to be the main constituent of rose absolute, while citrenellol and geraniol were the major compounds (>55%) of rose essential oil and hydrosol. Tocopherol and carotene levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The levels of beta carotene (422.3±35.6 ppm), alpha tocopherol (2397.1±72.5 ppm) and gamma tocopherol (343.1±28.4 ppm) of rose absolute were found to be higher than that of essential oil and hydrosol. Their total phenolic contents were also evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 5.2 to 2134.3 GAE/mg L−1. Rose absolute and essential oil contained high levels of phenolics and demonstrated strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12472) and Erwinia carotovora (ATCC 39048) strains.

References

  1. 1.
    Kaul VK, Singh V, Singh B (2000) Damask rose and marigold: prospective industrial crops. J Med Aromat Plant Sci 22:313–318Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kürkçüoğlu M, Başer KHC (2003) Studies on Turkish rose concrete, “absolute and hydrosol”. Chem Nat Comp 39:457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boskabady MH, Kiani S, Rakhshandah H (2006) Relaxant effects of Rosa damascena on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s). J Ethnopharmacol 106:377–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rakhshandah H, Hosseini M (2006) Potentiation of pentobarbital hypnosis of by Rosa damascena in mice. Indian J Exp Biol 44:910–912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kheirabadi M, Moghimi A, Rakhshande H, Rassouli MB (2008) Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activities of Rosa damascena on the PTZ induced seizures in wistar rats. JBS 8:426–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tabrizi H, Mortazavi SA, Kamalinejad M (1993) An in vitro evaluation of various Rosa damascena flower extracts as a natural antisolar agent. Int J Cosmet Sci 25:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kumar N, Bhandari P, Singh B, Bari SS (2008) Antioxidant activity and ultra-performance LC-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for phenolics-based fingerprinting of Rose species: Rosa damascena, R. bourboniana and R. brunonii. Food Chem Toxicol 47:361–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kovatcheva-Apostolova E, Milen G, Mladenka I, Leif S, Anja R, Mogens A (2008) Extracts of plant cell cultures of Lavandula vera and Rosa damascena as sources of phenolic antioxidants for use in foods. Eur Food Res Technol A 227:1243–1249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arıdoğan BC, Baydar H, Kaya S, Demirci M, Özbaşar D, Mumcu E (2002) Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some essential oils. Arch Pharm Res 25:860–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Basim E, Basim H (2003) Antibacterial activity of Rosa damascena essential oil. Fitoterapia 74:394–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Achuthan CR, Babu BH, Padikkala J (2003) Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Rosa damascena. Pharm Biol 41:357–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Özkan G, Sağdıç O, Göktürk-Baydar N, Baydar H (2004) Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosa damascena flower extracts. Food Sci Technol Int 10:277–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gochev V, Wlcek K, Buchbauer G, Stoyanova A, Dobreva A, Schmidt E, Jirovetz L (2008) Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity and composition of rose oils from various geographic origins, in particular Bulgarian rose oil. Nat Prod Commun 3:1063–1068Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV (1999) Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. J Appl Microbiol 86:985–990 6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lampi AM, Kataja L, Kamal-Eldin A, Piironen V (1999) Antioxidant activities of α- and γ-tocopherols in the oxidation of rapeseed oil triacylglycerols. J Am Oil Chem Soc 76:749–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Singleton VL, Rossi JR (1965) Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic–phosphotungstic acid. Am J Enology and Vitic 16:144–158Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Shahabi M (2002) Comparative investigations of essential oils and their SPME headspace volatiles of Rosa damascena from Bulgaria and Rosa centifolia from Morocco using GC-FID, GC–MS and olfactometry. J Essent Oil-Bear Plants 5:111–121Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Stoyanova A, Balinova A, Guangjiun Z, Xihan M (2005) Solid phase microextraction/gas chromatographic and olfactory analysis of the scent and fixative properties of the essential oil of Rosa damascena L. VF. Flavour Fragr J 20:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Loghmani-Khouzani H, Sabzi-Fini O, Safari J (2007) Essential oil composition of Rosa damascena Mill cultivated in central Iran. Sci Iran 14:316–319Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aydinli M, Tutas M (2003) Production of rose absolute from rose concrete. Flavour Fragr J 18:32–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cai YZ, Xing J, Sun M, Zhan ZQ, Corke H (2005) Phenolic antioxidants (hydrolyzable tannins, flavonols, and anthocyanins) identified by LC-ESI-MS and MALDI-QIT-TOF MS from Rosa chinensis flowers. Agric Food Chem 53:9940–9948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jassbi AR, Zamanizadehnajarib S, Tahara S (2003) Polyphenolic antioxidant constituents of Rosa persica. J Chem Soc Pak 25:323–327Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lindsay DG, Astley SB (2002) European research on the functional effects of dietary antioxidants. EUROFEDA. Mol Aspects Med 23:1–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tavani A, La Vecchia C (1999) Beta-carotene and risk of coronary heart disease. A review of observational and intervention studies. Biomed Pharmacother 53:409–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Etschmann MMW, Bluemke W, Sell D, Schrader J (2002) Biotechnological production of 2-phenylethanol. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 59:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fabre CE, Blanc PJ, Goma G (1998) 2-Phenylethyl alcohol: an aroma profile. Perfume Flavor 23:43–45Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seyhan Ulusoy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gülgün Boşgelmez-Tınaz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hale Seçilmiş-Canbay
    • 1
  1. 1.Experimental and Observational Student Research and Practice CentreSüleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of BiologySüleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey

Personalised recommendations