Current Microbiology

, Volume 57, Issue 4, pp 312–317 | Cite as

Isolation and Characterization of ACC Deaminase Gene from Two Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

  • Venkadasamy Govindasamy
  • Murugesan Senthilkumar
  • Kishore Gaikwad
  • Kannepalli AnnapurnaEmail author


Lowering of plant ethylene by deamination of its immediate precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) is a key trait found in many rhizobacteria. We isolated and screened bacteria from the rhizosphere of wheat for their ACC-degrading ability. The ACC deaminase gene (acdS) isolated from two bacterial isolates through PCR amplification was cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence alignment of these genes with previously reported genes of Pseudomonas sp. strain ACP and Enterobacter cloacae strain UW4 showed variation in their sequences. In the phylogenetic analysis, distinctness of these two genes was observed as a separate cluster. 16S rDNA sequencing of two isolates identified them to be Achromobacter sp. and Pseudomonas stutzeri.


Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification Pseudomonas Fluorescens Pseudomonas Stutzeri Nonspecific Band acdS Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are thankful to Department of Science and Technology (DST), India, for the financial grant. The first author thanks Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India, for his PhD fellowship.


  1. 1.
    Blaha D, Prigent-Combaret C, Mirza MS, Moënne-Loccoz Y (2006) Phylogeny of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase-encoding gene acdS in phytobeneficial and pathogenic Proteobacteria and relation with strain biogeography. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 56:455–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Campbell BG, Thomson JA (1996) 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase genes from Pseudomonas strains. FEMS Microbiol Lett 138:207–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Glick BR (1995) The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Can J Microbiol 41:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Glick BR, Penrose DM, Li J (1998) A model for the lowering of plant ethylene concentrations by plant growth promoting bacteria. J Theor Biol 190:63–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grichko VP, Glick BR (2000) Identification of DNA sequences that regulate the expression of the Enterobacter cloacae UW4 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene. Can J Microbiol 46:1159–1165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hall JA, Peirson D, Ghosh S, Glick BR (1996) Root elongation in various agronomic crops by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida GR12–2. Isr J Plant Sci 44:37–42Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Honma M, Shimomura T (1978) Metabolism of l aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Agric Biol Chem 42:1825–1831Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hontzeas N, Richardson AO, Belimov AA, Safranova VI, Abu-Omar MM, Glick BR (2005) Evidence for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of ACC deaminase genes. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:7556–7558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klee HJ, Hayford MB, Kretzmer KA, Barry GF, Kishore GM (1991) Control of ethylene synthesis by expression of a bacterial enzyme in transgenic tomato plants. Plant Cell 3:1187–1193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kloepper JW, Lifshitz R, Zablotowicz RM (1989) Free living bacterial inocula for enhancing crop productivity. Trends Biotechnol 7:39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Masterson RV, Prakash RK, Amerly AG (1985) Conservation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation gene sequence in R. japonicum and B. japonicum. J Bacteriol 163:21–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Penrose DM, Glick BR (2003) Methods for isolating and characterizing ACC deaminase-containing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Physiol Plant 118:10–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Penrose DM, Moffatt BA, Glick BR (2001) Determination of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to assess the effects of ACC deaminase-containing bacteria on roots of canola seedlings. Can J Microbiol 47:77–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Senthilkumar M, Govindasamy V, Annapurna K (2007) Role of antibiosis in suppression of charcoal rot disease by soybean endophyte Paenibacillus sp. HKA-15. Curr Microbiol 55:25–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shah S, Li J, Moffatt BA, Glick BR (1998) Isolation and characterization of ACC deaminase genes from two different plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Can J Microbiol 44:833–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang C, Knill E, Glick BR, Défago G (2000) Effect of transferring 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase genes into Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 and its gacA derivative CHA96 on their growth-promoting and disease-suppressive capacities. Can J Microbiol 46:898–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Venkadasamy Govindasamy
    • 1
  • Murugesan Senthilkumar
    • 1
  • Kishore Gaikwad
    • 2
  • Kannepalli Annapurna
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of MicrobiologyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.National Research Centre on Plant BiotechnologyIARINew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations