Skip to main content

Microbiome/microbiota and allergies

Abstract

Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species, called the “gut microbiota.” The recent development of sequencing technology has enabled researchers to genetically investigate and clarify the diversity of all species of commensal microbes. The collective genomes of commensal microbes are together called the “microbiome.” Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, it has been proposed that the microbiota/microbiome, especially that in the gut, impacts the systemic immunity and metabolism, thus affecting the development of various immunological diseases, including allergies. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the importance of the microbiome/microbiota in the development of allergic diseases and also the results of interventional studies using probiotics or prebiotics to prevent allergies.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Noverr MC, Huffnagle GB (2005) The ‘microflora hypothesis’ of allergic diseases. Clin Exp Allergy J Br Soc Allergy Clin Immunol 35(12):1511–1520. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02379.x

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Human Microbiome Project C (2012) Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature 486(7402):207–214. doi:10.1038/nature11234

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Hooper LV, Littman DR, Macpherson AJ (2012) Interactions between the microbiota and the immune system. Science 336(6086):1268–1273. doi:10.1126/science.1223490

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Tamari M, Tanaka S, Hirota T (2013) Genome-wide association studies of allergic diseases. Allergol Int Off J Jpn Soc Allergol 62(1):21–28. doi:10.2332/allergolint.13-RAI-0539

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ege MJ, Mayer M, Normand AC, Genuneit J, Cookson WO, Braun-Fahrlander C, Heederik D, Piarroux R, von Mutius E, Group GTS (2011) Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma. N Engl J Med 364(8):701–709. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1007302

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Strachan DP (1989) Hay fever, hygiene, and household size. BMJ 299(6710):1259–1260

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Prescott SL, Macaubas C, Smallacombe T, Holt BJ, Sly PD, Holt PG (1999) Development of allergen-specific T-cell memory in atopic and normal children. Lancet 353(9148):196–200. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)05104-6

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Linehan MF, Nurmatov U, Frank TL, Niven RM, Baxter DN, Sheikh A (2014) Does BCG vaccination protect against childhood asthma? Final results from the Manchester Community Asthma Study retrospective cohort study and updated systematic review and meta-analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 133(3):688–695. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.08.007, e614

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Perzanowski MS, Miller RL, Thorne PS, Barr RG, Divjan A, Sheares BJ, Garfinkel RS, Perera FP, Goldstein IF, Chew GL (2006) Endotoxin in inner-city homes: associations with wheeze and eczema in early childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol 117(5):1082–1089. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.12.1348

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Bach JF (2002) The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases. N Engl J Med 347(12):911–920. doi:10.1056/NEJMra020100

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Wills-Karp M, Santeliz J, Karp CL (2001) The germless theory of allergic disease: revisiting the hygiene hypothesis. Nat Rev Immunol 1(1):69–75. doi:10.1038/35095579

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Satokari R, Gronroos T, Laitinen K, Salminen S, Isolauri E (2009) Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus DNA in the human placenta. Lett Appl Microbiol 48(1):8–12. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2008.02475.x

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Jimenez E, Fernandez L, Marin ML, Martin R, Odriozola JM, Nueno-Palop C, Narbad A, Olivares M, Xaus J, Rodriguez JM (2005) Isolation of commensal bacteria from umbilical cord blood of healthy neonates born by cesarean section. Curr Microbiol 51(4):270–274. doi:10.1007/s00284-005-0020-3

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Rautava S, Collado MC, Salminen S, Isolauri E (2012) Probiotics modulate host-microbe interaction in the placenta and fetal gut: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neonatology 102(3):178–184. doi:10.1159/000339182

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    DiGiulio DB, Romero R, Amogan HP, Kusanovic JP, Bik EM, Gotsch F, Kim CJ, Erez O, Edwin S, Relman DA (2008) Microbial prevalence, diversity and abundance in amniotic fluid during preterm labor: a molecular and culture-based investigation. PLoS One 3(8):e3056. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003056

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Jimenez E, Marin ML, Martin R, Odriozola JM, Olivares M, Xaus J, Fernandez L, Rodriguez JM (2008) Is meconium from healthy newborns actually sterile? Res Microbiol 159(3):187–193. doi:10.1016/j.resmic.2007.12.007

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Bager P, Melbye M, Rostgaard K, Benn CS, Westergaard T (2003) Mode of delivery and risk of allergic rhinitis and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(1):51–56

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Palmer C, Bik EM, DiGiulio DB, Relman DA, Brown PO (2007) Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota. PLoS Biol 5(7):e177. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050177

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Jost T, Lacroix C, Braegger CP, Chassard C (2012) New insights in gut microbiota establishment in healthy breast fed neonates. PLoS One 7(8):e44595. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044595

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Favier CF, de Vos WM, Akkermans AD (2003) Development of bacterial and bifidobacterial communities in feces of newborn babies. Anaerobe 9(5):219–229. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2003.07.001

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Roger LC, Costabile A, Holland DT, Hoyles L, McCartney AL (2010) Examination of faecal Bifidobacterium populations in breast- and formula-fed infants during the first 18 months of life. Microbiology 156(Pt 11):3329–3341. doi:10.1099/mic.0.043224-0

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Cabrera-Rubio R, Collado MC, Laitinen K, Salminen S, Isolauri E, Mira A (2012) The human milk microbiome changes over lactation and is shaped by maternal weight and mode of delivery. Am J Clin Nutr 96(3):544–551. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.037382

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Chen YE, Tsao H (2013) The skin microbiome: current perspectives and future challenges. J Am Acad Dermatol 69(1):143–155. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2013.01.016

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Madan JC, Koestler DC, Stanton BA, Davidson L, Moulton LA, Housman ML, Moore JH, Guill MF, Morrison HG, Sogin ML, Hampton TH, Karagas MR, Palumbo PE, Foster JA, Hibberd PL, O’Toole GA (2012) Serial analysis of the gut and respiratory microbiome in cystic fibrosis in infancy: interaction between intestinal and respiratory tracts and impact of nutritional exposures. mBio 3(4). doi:10.1128/mBio.00251-12

  25. 25.

    Kalliomaki M, Kirjavainen P, Eerola E, Kero P, Salminen S, Isolauri E (2001) Distinct patterns of neonatal gut microflora in infants in whom atopy was and was not developing. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107(1):129–134. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.111237

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    van Nimwegen FA, Penders J, Stobberingh EE, Postma DS, Koppelman GH, Kerkhof M, Reijmerink NE, Dompeling E, van den Brandt PA, Ferreira I, Mommers M, Thijs C (2011) Mode and place of delivery, gastrointestinal microbiota, and their influence on asthma and atopy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 128(5):948–955. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.07.027, e941–943

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Kummeling I, Stelma FF, Dagnelie PC, Snijders BE, Penders J, Huber M, van Ree R, van den Brandt PA, Thijs C (2007) Early life exposure to antibiotics and the subsequent development of eczema, wheeze, and allergic sensitization in the first 2 years of life: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Pediatrics 119(1):e225–e231. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-0896

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Penders J, Thijs C, van den Brandt PA, Kummeling I, Snijders B, Stelma F, Adams H, van Ree R, Stobberingh EE (2007) Gut microbiota composition and development of atopic manifestations in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Gut 56(5):661–667. doi:10.1136/gut.2006.100164

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Atarashi K, Tanoue T, Shima T, Imaoka A, Kuwahara T, Momose Y, Cheng G, Yamasaki S, Saito T, Ohba Y, Taniguchi T, Takeda K, Hori S, Ivanov II, Umesaki Y, Itoh K, Honda K (2011) Induction of colonic regulatory T cells by indigenous Clostridium species. Science 331(6015):337–341. doi:10.1126/science.1198469

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Bashir ME, Louie S, Shi HN, Nagler-Anderson C (2004) Toll-like receptor 4 signaling by intestinal microbes influences susceptibility to food allergy. J Immunol 172(11):6978–6987

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Rodriguez B, Prioult G, Bibiloni R, Nicolis I, Mercenier A, Butel MJ, Waligora-Dupriet AJ (2011) Germ-free status and altered caecal subdominant microbiota are associated with a high susceptibility to cow’s milk allergy in mice. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 76(1):133–144. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2010.01035.x

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Hill DA, Siracusa MC, Abt MC, Kim BS, Kobuley D, Kubo M, Kambayashi T, Larosa DF, Renner ED, Orange JS, Bushman FD, Artis D (2012) Commensal bacteria-derived signals regulate basophil hematopoiesis and allergic inflammation. Nat Med 18(4):538–546. doi:10.1038/nm.2657

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Rask C, Evertsson S, Telemo E, Wold AE (2005) A full flora, but not monocolonization by Escherichia coli or lactobacilli, supports tolerogenic processing of a fed antigen. Scand J Immunol 61(6):529–535. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3083.2005.01598.x

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Josefowicz SZ, Niec RE, Kim HY, Treuting P, Chinen T, Zheng Y, Umetsu DT, Rudensky AY (2012) Extrathymically generated regulatory T cells control mucosal TH2 inflammation. Nature 482(7385):395–399. doi:10.1038/nature10772

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Round JL, Mazmanian SK (2010) Inducible Foxp3+ regulatory T-cell development by a commensal bacterium of the intestinal microbiota. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(27):12204–12209. doi:10.1073/pnas.0909122107

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Round JL, Lee SM, Li J, Tran G, Jabri B, Chatila TA, Mazmanian SK (2011) The Toll-like receptor 2 pathway establishes colonization by a commensal of the human microbiota. Science 332(6032):974–977. doi:10.1126/science.1206095

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Esplugues E, Huber S, Gagliani N, Hauser AE, Town T, Wan YY, O’Connor W Jr, Rongvaux A, Van Rooijen N, Haberman AM, Iwakura Y, Kuchroo VK, Kolls JK, Bluestone JA, Herold KC, Flavell RA (2011) Control of TH17 cells occurs in the small intestine. Nature 475(7357):514–518. doi:10.1038/nature10228

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Ivanov II, Frutos Rde L, Manel N, Yoshinaga K, Rifkin DB, Sartor RB, Finlay BB, Littman DR (2008) Specific microbiota direct the differentiation of IL-17-producing T-helper cells in the mucosa of the small intestine. Cell Host Microbe 4(4):337–349. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2008.09.009

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Ivanov II, Atarashi K, Manel N, Brodie EL, Shima T, Karaoz U, Wei D, Goldfarb KC, Santee CA, Lynch SV, Tanoue T, Imaoka A, Itoh K, Takeda K, Umesaki Y, Honda K, Littman DR (2009) Induction of intestinal Th17 cells by segmented filamentous bacteria. Cell 139(3):485–498. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.09.033

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Chen K, Xu W, Wilson M, He B, Miller NW, Bengten E, Edholm ES, Santini PA, Rath P, Chiu A, Cattalini M, Litzman J, Bussel JB, Huang B, Meini A, Riesbeck K, Cunningham-Rundles C, Plebani A, Cerutti A (2009) Immunoglobulin D enhances immune surveillance by activating antimicrobial, proinflammatory and B cell-stimulating programs in basophils. Nat Immunol 10(8):889–898. doi:10.1038/ni.1748

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Ring J, Przybilla B, Ruzicka T (2006) Handbook of atopic eczema. Springer, Berlin

    Book  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Adlerberth I, Strachan DP, Matricardi PM, Ahrne S, Orfei L, Aberg N, Perkin MR, Tripodi S, Hesselmar B, Saalman R, Coates AR, Bonanno CL, Panetta V, Wold AE (2007) Gut microbiota and development of atopic eczema in 3 European birth cohorts. J Allergy Clin Immunol 120(2):343–350. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2007.05.018

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Bisgaard H, Li N, Bonnelykke K, Chawes BL, Skov T, Paludan-Muller G, Stokholm J, Smith B, Krogfelt KA (2011) Reduced diversity of the intestinal microbiota during infancy is associated with increased risk of allergic disease at school age. J Allergy Clin Immunol 128(3):646–652. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.04.060, e641–645

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Wang M, Karlsson C, Olsson C, Adlerberth I, Wold AE, Strachan DP, Martricardi PM, Aberg N, Perkin MR, Tripodi S, Coates AR, Hesselmar B, Saalman R, Molin G, Ahrne S (2008) Reduced diversity in the early fecal microbiota of infants with atopic eczema. J Allergy Clin Immunol 121(1):129–134. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2007.09.011

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Forno E, Onderdonk AB, McCracken J, Litonjua AA, Laskey D, Delaney ML, Dubois AM, Gold DR, Ryan LM, Weiss ST, Celedon JC (2008) Diversity of the gut microbiota and eczema in early life. Clin Mol Allergy CMA 6:11. doi:10.1186/1476-7961-6-11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Leyden JJ, Marples RR, Kligman AM (1974) Staphylococcus aureus in the lesions of atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 90(5):525–530

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Kong HH, Oh J, Deming C, Conlan S, Grice EA, Beatson MA, Nomicos E, Polley EC, Komarow HD, Murray PR, Turner ML, Segre JA (2012) Temporal shifts in the skin microbiome associated with disease flares and treatment in children with atopic dermatitis. Genome Res 22(5):850–859. doi:10.1101/gr.131029.111

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Boyce JA, Assa’ad A, Burks AW, Jones SM, Sampson HA, Wood RA, Plaut M, Cooper SF, Fenton MJ, Arshad SH, Bahna SL, Beck LA, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Camargo CA Jr, Eichenfield L, Furuta GT, Hanifin JM, Jones C, Kraft M, Levy BD, Lieberman P, Luccioli S, McCall KM, Schneider LC, Simon RA, Simons FE, Teach SJ, Yawn BP, Schwaninger JM (2010) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: Summary of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel report. J Allergy Clin Immunol 126(6):1105–1118. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.10.008

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Rodriguez B, Prioult G, Hacini-Rachinel F, Moine D, Bruttin A, Ngom-Bru C, Labellie C, Nicolis I, Berger B, Mercenier A, Butel MJ, Waligora-Dupriet AJ (2012) Infant gut microbiota is protective against cow’s milk allergy in mice despite immature ileal T-cell response. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 79(1):192–202. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01207.x

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Noval Rivas M, Burton OT, Wise P, Zhang YQ, Hobson SA, Garcia Lloret M, Chehoud C, Kuczynski J, DeSantis T, Warrington J, Hyde ER, Petrosino JF, Gerber GK, Bry L, Oettgen HC, Mazmanian SK, Chatila TA (2013) A microbiota signature associated with experimental food allergy promotes allergic sensitization and anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 131(1):201–212. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.10.026

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Ling Z, Li Z, Liu X, Cheng Y, Luo Y, Tong X, Yuan L, Wang Y, Sun J, Li L, Xiang C (2014) Altered fecal microbiota composition associated with food allergy in infants. Appl Environ Microbiol 80(8):2546–2554. doi:10.1128/AEM.00003-14

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Huang YJ, Nelson CE, Brodie EL, Desantis TZ, Baek MS, Liu J, Woyke T, Allgaier M, Bristow J, Wiener-Kronish JP, Sutherland ER, King TS, Icitovic N, Martin RJ, Calhoun WJ, Castro M, Denlinger LC, Dimango E, Kraft M, Peters SP, Wasserman SI, Wechsler ME, Boushey HA, Lynch SV, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Asthma Clinical Research Network (2011) Airway microbiota and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with suboptimally controlled asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 127(2):372–381. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.10.048, e371–373

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Hilty M, Burke C, Pedro H, Cardenas P, Bush A, Bossley C, Davies J, Ervine A, Poulter L, Pachter L, Moffatt MF, Cookson WO (2010) Disordered microbial communities in asthmatic airways. PLoS One 5(1):e8578. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008578

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Herbst T, Sichelstiel A, Schar C, Yadava K, Burki K, Cahenzli J, McCoy K, Marsland BJ, Harris NL (2011) Dysregulation of allergic airway inflammation in the absence of microbial colonization. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 184(2):198–205. doi:10.1164/rccm.201010-1574OC

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Szajewska H (2013) Understanding the role of probiotics and prebiotics in preventing allergic disease: evidence and methodological issues. Immunotherapy 5(8):869–878. doi:10.2217/imt.13.85

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Dongarra ML, Rizzello V, Muccio L, Fries W, Cascio A, Bonaccorsi I, Ferlazzo G (2013) Mucosal immunology and probiotics. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 13(1):19–26. doi:10.1007/s11882-012-0313-0

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Isolauri E, Rautava S, Salminen S (2012) Probiotics in the development and treatment of allergic disease. Gastroenterol Clin N Am 41(4):747–762. doi:10.1016/j.gtc.2012.08.007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H, Kero P, Koskinen P, Isolauri E (2001) Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 357(9262):1076–1079. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04259-8

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Kim HJ, Kim HY, Lee SY, Seo JH, Lee E, Hong SJ (2013) Clinical efficacy and mechanism of probiotics in allergic diseases. Korean J Pediatr 56(9):369–376. doi:10.3345/kjp.2013.56.9.369

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Lee J, Seto D, Bielory L (2008) Meta-analysis of clinical trials of probiotics for prevention and treatment of pediatric atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 121(1):116–121. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2007.10.043, e111

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Betsi GI, Papadavid E, Falagas ME (2008) Probiotics for the treatment or prevention of atopic dermatitis: a review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Dermatol 9(2):93–103

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Pelucchi C, Chatenoud L, Turati F, Galeone C, Moja L, Bach JF, La Vecchia C (2012) Probiotics supplementation during pregnancy or infancy for the prevention of atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis. Epidemiology 23(3):402–414. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e31824d5da2

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Doege K, Grajecki D, Zyriax BC, Detinkina E, Zu Eulenburg C, Buhling KJ (2012) Impact of maternal supplementation with probiotics during pregnancy on atopic eczema in childhood—a meta-analysis. Br J Nutr 107(1):1–6. doi:10.1017/S0007114511003400

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Abrahamsson TR, Jakobsson T, Bottcher MF, Fredrikson M, Jenmalm MC, Bjorksten B, Oldaeus G (2007) Probiotics in prevention of IgE-associated eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 119(5):1174–1180. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2007.01.007

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Taylor AL, Dunstan JA, Prescott SL (2007) Probiotic supplementation for the first 6 months of life fails to reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis and increases the risk of allergen sensitization in high-risk children: a randomized controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 119(1):184–191. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.08.036

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Kuitunen M, Kukkonen K, Juntunen-Backman K, Korpela R, Poussa T, Tuure T, Haahtela T, Savilahti E (2009) Probiotics prevent IgE-associated allergy until age 5 years in cesarean-delivered children but not in the total cohort. J Allergy Clin Immunol 123(2):335–341. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.11.019

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Rose MA, Stieglitz F, Koksal A, Schubert R, Schulze J, Zielen S (2010) Efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus GG on allergic sensitization and asthma in infants at risk. Clin Exp Allergy j Br Soc Allergy Clin Immunol 40(9):1398–1405. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2010.03560.x

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Hol J, van Leer EH, Elink Schuurman BE, de Ruiter LF, Samsom JN, Hop W, Neijens HJ, de Jongste JC, Nieuwenhuis EE (2008) The acquisition of tolerance toward cow’s milk through probiotic supplementation: a randomized, controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 121(6):1448–1454. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.03.018

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Osborn DA, Sinn JK (2013) Prebiotics in infants for prevention of allergy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3, CD006474. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006474.pub3

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Roberfroid M (2007) Prebiotics: the concept revisited. J Nutr 137(3 Suppl 2):830S–837S

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Thomas DW, Greer FR (2010) Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics. Pediatrics 126(6):1217–1231. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-2548

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Arslanoglu S, Moro GE, Schmitt J, Tandoi L, Rizzardi S, Boehm G (2008) Early dietary intervention with a mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of allergic manifestations and infections during the first two years of life. J Nutr 138(6):1091–1095

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Moro G, Arslanoglu S, Stahl B, Jelinek J, Wahn U, Boehm G (2006) A mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis during the first six months of age. Arch Dis Child 91(10):814–819. doi:10.1136/adc.2006.098251

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Ziegler E, Vanderhoof JA, Petschow B, Mitmesser SH, Stolz SI, Harris CL, Berseth CL (2007) Term infants fed formula supplemented with selected blends of prebiotics grow normally and have soft stools similar to those reported for breast-fed infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 44(3):359–364. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e31802fca8c

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Gruber C, van Stuijvenberg M, Mosca F, Moro G, Chirico G, Braegger CP, Riedler J, Boehm G, Wahn U (2010) Reduced occurrence of early atopic dermatitis because of immunoactive prebiotics among low-atopy-risk infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol 126(4):791–797. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.07.022

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Niele N, van Zwol A, Westerbeek EA, Lafeber HN, van Elburg RM (2013) Effect of non-human neutral and acidic oligosaccharides on allergic and infectious diseases in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr 172(3):317–323. doi:10.1007/s00431-012-1886-2

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Kukkonen K, Savilahti E, Haahtela T, Juntunen-Backman K, Korpela R, Poussa T, Tuure T, Kuitunen M (2007) Probiotics and prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in the prevention of allergic diseases: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 119(1):192–198. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.09.009

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    van der Aa LB, Heymans HS, van Aalderen WM, Sillevis Smitt JH, Knol J, Ben Amor K, Goossens DA, Sprikkelman AB (2010) Effect of a new synbiotic mixture on atopic dermatitis in infants: a randomized-controlled trial. Clin Exp Allergy J Br Soc Allergy Clin Immunol 40(5):795–804. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2010.03465.x

    Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    van der Aa LB, Lutter R, Heymans HS, Smids BS, Dekker T, van Aalderen WM, Sillevis Smitt JH, Knippels LM, Garssen J, Nauta AJ, Sprikkelman AB (2012) No detectable beneficial systemic immunomodulatory effects of a specific synbiotic mixture in infants with atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy J Br Soc Allergy Clin Immunol 42(4):531–539. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2011.03890.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Adams CA (2010) The probiotic paradox: live and dead cells are biological response modifiers. Nutr Res Rev 23(1):37–46. doi:10.1017/S0954422410000090

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Matsuzaki T, Yamazaki R, Hashimoto S, Yokokura T (1998) The effect of oral feeding of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on immunoglobulin E production in mice. J Dairy Sci 81(1):48–53. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75549-3

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Segawa S, Nakakita Y, Takata Y, Wakita Y, Kaneko T, Kaneda H, Watari J, Yasui H (2008) Effect of oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 on total and ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E production through the improvement of Th1/Th2 balance. Int J Food Microbiol 121(1):1–10. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.10.004

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Sashihara T, Sueki N, Ikegami S (2006) An analysis of the effectiveness of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria in alleviating allergic diseases. J Dairy Sci 89(8):2846–2855. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72557-7

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Dr. Brian Quinn for reviewing the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

None.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Naoki Shimojo.

Additional information

This article is a contribution to the Special Issue on Microbiome, Immunity and Inflammation - Guest Editor: Hiroshi Ohno

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Inoue, Y., Shimojo, N. Microbiome/microbiota and allergies. Semin Immunopathol 37, 57–64 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-014-0453-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Microbiome
  • Microbiota
  • Dysbiosis
  • Allergy
  • Probiotics
  • Prebiotics