Seminars in Immunopathology

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 239–255 | Cite as

Cellular choreography in the germinal center: new visions from in vivo imaging

  • Anja E. Hauser
  • Steven M. Kerfoot
  • Ann M. Haberman


Germinal centers (GC) are large aggregates of proliferating B lymphocytes within follicles of lymphoid tissue that form during adaptive immune responses. GCs are the source of long-lived B cells that form the basis for pathogen-specific lifelong B cell immunity. The complex architecture of these structures includes subdomains that differ significantly in their stromal cell and T lymphocyte subset composition. In part due to their structural complexity and potential to generate some lymphomas, much interest and many theories about GC dynamics have emerged. Here, we review recent research employing in vivo imaging that has begun to untangle some of the mysteries.


Germinal center Lymphocyte Migration Follicular dendritic cell Two-photon laser scanning microscopy 



We thank Mark Shlomchik for critical reading of the manuscript and thoughtful discussion. This work was supported in part by grants from NIH grant 1R01AI080850-01A1 (AMH and SMK) and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) grant HA5354/1–4 (AEH).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anja E. Hauser
    • 1
  • Steven M. Kerfoot
    • 2
  • Ann M. Haberman
    • 2
  1. 1.Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum (DRFZ)BerlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of Laboratory MedicineYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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