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Seminars in Immunopathology

, 29:213 | Cite as

NALP Inflammasomes: a central role in innate immunity

  • Fabio Martinon
  • Olivier Gaide
  • Virgine Pétrilli
  • Annick Mayor
  • Jürg Tschopp
Review

Abstract

Inflammasomes are cytoplasmic multiprotein complexes that mediate the maturation of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, and possibly IL-33 by controlling the activation of the inflammatory caspases-1 and -5. Assembly of inflammasomes depends on NOD-like receptor (NLR) family members such as NALPs, NAIP, and IPAF. Various microbial and endogenous stimuli activate different types of inflammasomes. This article focuses on the Pyrin domain containing NLRs, known as NALP proteins. Recent findings provide exciting insights into how these proteins might be activated and also provide evidence of the critical role of the NALP inflammasomes in innate immunity and inflammatory diseases.

Keywords

Inflammasome NLRs Interleukin-1β Innate immunity Autoinflammation 

Abbreviations

ASC

Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD

CARD

Caspase recruitment domain

DNFB

2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene

ICE

interleukin-1β -converting enzyme

IL-1

interleukin-1

IPAF

ICE protease-activating factor

LRR

leucine rich repeat

MDP

Muramyl dipeptide

MSU

Monosodium urate crystals

MyD88

Myeloid differentiation protein 88

NALP

NACHT, LRR and PYD containing proteins

NACHT

Domain present NAIP, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator (CIITA), HET-E and TP1

NAIP

Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein

NB-ARC

nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by APAF-1, R gene products and CED-4

NBS-LRR

nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat

NLR

NOD-like receptors

PAMP

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns

PYD

Pyrin domain

TNP-CL

Trinitrophenylchloride

TNCB

Trinitrochlorobenzene

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the members of the Tschopp laboratory and Michael McDermott for discussions and critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by grants of the Swiss National Science Foundation (JT). FM is supported by a long-term fellowship from the Human Frontier Sciences Program. VP is supported by the EIF Marie Curie Fellowship.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabio Martinon
    • 1
  • Olivier Gaide
    • 2
  • Virgine Pétrilli
    • 3
  • Annick Mayor
    • 3
  • Jürg Tschopp
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Immunology and Infectious DiseasesHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology and Patholog-ImmunologyGeneva University Medical CenterGenevaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of Lausanne, BIL Biomedical Research CenterEpalingesSwitzerland

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