Weinen

Modell des biopsychosozialen Phänomens und gegenwärtiger Forschungsstand

Crying

Model of a biopsychosocial phenomenon and present state of research

Zusammenfassung

Der vorliegende Beitrag schildert den gegenwärtigen Forschungsstand zum menschlichen Weinen. Dabei wird das Tränenvergießen nicht nur als psychobiologischer Vorgang mit bestimmten Auswirkungen auf das physische und das mentale Wohlbefinden der weinenden Person verstanden, sondern auch als Kommunikation der weinenden Person mit den Anwesenden. Das umfassende Modell des Weinens von Erwachsenen der Autoren bezieht nicht nur die Anlässe des Weinens, sondern auch seine gesellschaftlichen Kontexte, seine Konsequenzen für die weinende Person und seine interindividuellen Effekte ein. Es ist bis heute nicht deutlich, inwiefern Weinen einen positiven Effekt für den Gesundheitszustand der weinenden Person hat und unter welchen Bedingungen es Spannungsabbau sowie physiologische Erholung fördert. Bei Erwachsenen wird es darüber hinaus zum Aggressionsabbau und zur Manipulation der Anwesenden eingesetzt und kann zudem einen kathartischen Effekt auf die weinende Person haben. In beiden Aspekten ist das Weinen ein Mittel zur Verstärkung der Bindung anderer an die weinende Person; dies repräsentiert sowohl emotions- als auch problemregulierende Stressverwaltung.

Abstract

This contribution describes the present state of research concerning human crying, in particular the conditions that induce crying, the context and the intra-individual and inter-individual effects of shedding emotional tears. Crying is regarded not only as a psychobiological process with certain effects on the physical and mental well-being of the crying person, but also as a process which has a strong impact on the social environment. A comprehensive model of adult crying is presented, which not only accounts for these behavioral differences, but which also covers the reasons for crying, its social contexts, its consequences for the crying person and its inter-individual effects. In addition, the role of moderating variables is clarified. It is emphasized that there is no clear evidence in support of the hypothesis that crying brings relief and is healthy. It is suggested that the appropriate question is „under which conditions can crying bring relief?” rather than „does crying bring relief?” Furthermore, the impact of crying on the social environment is pointed out by which it facilitates the provision of social support and it may reduce aggression. Seen from a coping perspective, crying thus may both serve emotion-focused coping and problem-focused coping functions.

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Correspondence to Prof. Dr. Ad J.J.M. Vingerhoets.

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Vingerhoets, A. Weinen. Psychotherapeut 54, 90–100 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00278-009-0655-9

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Weinen
  • Tränen
  • Emotionen
  • Bewältigungsstrategien
  • Soziale Unterstützung
  • Wohlbefinden

Keywords

  • Crying
  • Tears
  • Emotions
  • Coping
  • Social support
  • Well-being