Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant (haplo-HSCT) is an upfront and effective therapy for hematology patients, but it usually has many complications, such as neurological complications. As one of the neurological complications following haplo-HSCT, immune-mediated demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) seriously affect a patient’s quality of life. However, the incidence, risk factors, and pathogenesis of CNS demyelination are not very well understood. Thirty of the 1526 patients (1.96%) suffered from CNS demyelination. In univariate analysis, we found that blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and the CSF IgG synthesis index (IgG-Syn) were related to the occurrence of CNS demyelination (p < 0.05). In a multivariate analysis, the IgG-Syn (OR = 1.017, 95% CI 1.003–1.031, p = 0.019) and CSF anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG.Ab) (OR = 12.059, 95% CI 1.141–127.458, p = 0.038) were independently associated with the onset of CNS demyelination. We also studied the possible pathogenesis of CNS demyelination. Immune reconstitution (the cell proportions of CD19+ B cells, CD3+ T cells, and CD4+ T cells); the counts of leucocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets; and the levels of immunoglobulins A, G, and M 30, 60, and 90 days after HSCT showed no significant differences between CNS demyelination and no demyelination (p > 0.05). The probabilities of overall survival showed no significant differences between patients with and without demyelination (p > 0.05). Only four deaths in 30 patients, but bringing projected survival to less than 20%.We imply that IgG-Syn and CSF MOG. Ab may be associated with the onset of CNS demyelination during 2 weeks of neurological symptoms in patients with brain or spinal cord MRI abnormality. Immune reconstitution may not be the pathogenesis of CNS demyelination.
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The authors thank the laboratory of neuroimmunology, Peking University First Hospital. American Journal Experts (www.journalexperts.com) provided editorial assistance to the authors during the preparation of the manuscript.
The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81470343 and No. 81670116) and Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No.7171013) and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission (No. Z171100001017084) and Project supported by the Special Foundation for State Major Basic Research Program of China (2017YFA0105500).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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