Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Renal vein valves: a prevalence, microanatomical and histological study

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Purpose

In the modern era of robotic renal procedures and diagnostics, an even more detailed anatomical understanding than hitherto is necessary. Valves of the renal veins (RVV) have been underemphasized and have been disputed by some authors, and few textbooks describe them. The current anatomical study was performed to address such shortcomings in the literature.

Methods

One hundred renal veins were studied in fifty adult formalin-fixed cadavers. Renal veins were removed from the abdomen after sectioning them flush with their entrance to the renal hilum. The inferior vena cava was then incised longitudinally and opened, and RVV were examined grossly and histologically. A classification scheme was developed and applied to our findings.

Results

Nineteen RVVs were observed in the fifty cadavers (38%). Four (8%) valves were found on right sides and fifteen (30%) on left sides. The valves were seen as cord/band-like, folds, and single and double leaflets. Histologically, they were all extensions of the tunica intima.

Conclusion

On the basis of our study, RVV are not uncommon. They were more common on left sides, and on both sides, they were found within approximately one centimeter of the junction of the inferior vena cava and renal vein. Although the function of such valves cannot be inferred from this anatomical study, the structures of the Single leaflet valve (TS2) and Double leaflet valve (TS3) valves suggest they could prevent venous reflux from the IVC into the kidney.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

Please contact authors for data requests (Devendra Shekhawat PhD - email address: dev.pgimer@gmail.com).

References

  1. Ahlberg N-E, Bartley O, Chidekel N (1968) Occurrence of valves in the main trunk of the renal vein. Acta Radiol Diagnosis 7:431–437. https://doi.org/10.1177/028418516800700509

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Barry P, Autissier J, Repolt J (1962) Contribution à l’étude Morphologique Du système Veineux rénal. J Med Lyon 43:229–235

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Beckmann CF, Abrams HL (1978) Renal vein valves: incidence and significance. Radiology 127:351–356. https://doi.org/10.1148/127.2.351

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Blaivas JG, Previte SR, Pais VM (1977) Idiopathic pelviureteric varices. Urology 9:207–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-4295(77)90202-3

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Campbell JA, * Corrigall AV,* Veenstra, Hanne,** Dale, John,*** Rademeyer, Kirsch DJ, Stannard RE (1995) LM No renal vein valves observed in the Chacma babbon. South African Journal of Science 91:59

  6. Charpy A, Poirier PJ (1904) Traité d’anatomie humaine: Myologie; embryologie; histologie. Masson

  7. Heinz A, Brenner E (2010) Valves of the gonadal veins. Anat Study 39:317–324. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1622328

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Henle J (1868) Handbuch Der Systematischen Anatomie Des Menschen: in drei Bänden. Handbuch Der Gefässlehre Des Menschen. Vieweg

  9. Hollinshead WH (1966) Renovascular anatomy. Postgrad Med 40:241–246

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Iwanaga J, Singh V, Ohtsuka A et al (2021) Acknowledging the use of human cadaveric tissues in research papers: recommendations from anatomical journal editors. Clin Anat 34:2–4. https://doi.org/10.1002/ca.23671

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Iwanaga J, Singh V, Takeda S et al (2022) Standardized statement for the ethical use of human cadaveric tissues in anatomy research papers: recommendations from Anatomical Journal editors-in-Chief. Clin Anat 35:526–528. https://doi.org/10.1002/ca.23849

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. K G (1903) Lehrbuch Der Anatomie Des Menschen Bd, vol 2. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig

    Google Scholar 

  13. Kampmeier OF Birch CLF the origin and development of the venous valves, with particular reference to the saphenous district. Am J Anat 38:451–499

  14. Luschka H (1863) Die Muskulatur Der Vorhöfe Des Herzens. Die Anatomie Des Menschen. Die Brust, vol 1. Laupp & Siebeck, Tübingen, pp 373–377

    Google Scholar 

  15. March TL, Halpern M (1963) Renal vein thrombosis demonstrated by selective renal phlebography. Radiology 81:958–962. https://doi.org/10.1148/81.6.958

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Mcdonald PT, Hutton JE Jr (1977) Renal vein Valve. JAMA 238:2303–2304

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Oleaga JA, Ring EJ, Freiman D et al (1978) Renal vein valves. Am J Roentgenol 130:927–928

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Rivington W (1872) Valves in the renal veins. J Anat Physiol 7:163

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. Satyapal KS (1993) An anatomical exploration into the variable patterns of the venous vasculature of the human kidney. In

  20. Satyapal KS, Kalideen JM (1996) Absence of renal vein valves in humans and baboons. Annals Anatomy-Anatomischer Anzeiger 178:481–484

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Standring S (2021) Gray’s anatomy e-book: the anatomical basis of clinical practice. Elsevier Health Sciences

  22. Takaro T, Dow J, Kishev S (1970) Selective occlusive renal phlebography in man. Radiology 94:589–597

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Kügelgen V, Greinemann A H (1958) Die Klappen in den menschlichen Nierenvenen, besonders an Der Mündung Der Nierenbeckenvenen. Z für Zellforschung Und Mikroskopische Anatomie 47:648–673

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Zanetti-Yabur A (2017) Beware of right renal vein valves in transplanted kidneys: renal vein Valvuloplasty in a donor kidney. Ochsner J 17:2–5. https://doi.org/10.1043/1524-5012-17.1.2

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors sincerely thank those who donated their bodies to science so that anatomical research could be performed. Results from such research can potentially increase mankind’s overall knowledge that can then improve patient care. Therefore, these donors and their families deserve our highest gratitude. The authors state that every effort was made to follow all local and international ethical guidelines and laws that pertain to the use of human donated bodies in anatomical research [10].

Funding

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Conceptualization: DS, JI,ML,RST. Data acquisition: JJC, DS, AC,EL Data analysis or interpretation: DS,RST,JI, ML. Drafting of the manuscript: DS, JJC, AC, RST. Critical revision of the manuscript: JI, MK, RST. Approval of the final version of the manuscript: all authors.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Devendra Shekhawat.

Ethics declarations

Ethical approval

Our institution does not require an Institutional Review Board approval of non-patient/living human studies. Thus, as our study used a cadaver, approval was not required.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that the article content was composed in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Corresponding author.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Shekhawat, D., Chaiyamoon, A., Cardona, J.J. et al. Renal vein valves: a prevalence, microanatomical and histological study. Surg Radiol Anat 46, 535–541 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00276-024-03330-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00276-024-03330-z

Keywords

Navigation