Relationships between differences in the number of fiber bundles of the anterior talofibular ligament and differences in the angle of the calcaneofibular ligament and their effects on ankle-braking function

  • Mutsuaki EdamaEmail author
  • Tomoya Takabayashi
  • Takuma Inai
  • Takanori Kikumoto
  • Wataru Ito
  • Emi Nakamura
  • Ryo Hirabayashi
  • Masahiro Ikezu
  • Fumiya Kaneko
  • Ikuo Kageyama
Original Article



The aim was to clarify the relationships between differences in the number of fiber bundles of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and differences in the angle of the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) with respect to the long axis of the fibula and their effects on ankle braking function.


The study sample included 110 Japanese cadavers. ATFLs were categorized as: Type I with one fiber bundle; Type II with two fiber bundles with incomplete separation and complete separation; and Type III with three fiber bundles. The CFLs were categorized according to the angles of the CFLs with respect to the long axis of the fibula and the number of fiber bundles. Six categories were established: CFL10° (angle of the CFL with respect to the long axis of the fibula from 10° to 19°); CFL20° (range 20°–29°); CFL30° (range 30°–39°); CFL40° (range 40°–49°); CFL50° (range 50°–59°); and CFL2 (CFLs with two crossing fiber bundles).


ATFL was Type I in 34 legs (31%), Type II in 66 legs (60%), and Type III in 10 legs (9%). Five CFL categories were identified: CFL10° in 4 feet (3.7%); CFL20° in 23 feet (20.9%); CFL30° in 34 feet (30.9%); CFL40° in 33 feet (30%); CFL50° in 15 feet (13.6%); and CFL2 in one foot (0.9%). Type III contained mainly CFL40° and CFL50° (7 of 10 feet).


ATFL and CFL appear to cooperate in the ankle joint braking function.


Lateral ankle ligament injury Ankle inversion restriction Lateral ankle ligament complex 



The authors would like to acknowledge and thank those anonymous individuals who generously donated their bodies so that this study could be performed. This study was supported by a Research Activity Young B Grant (17K13072) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and a Grant-in-Aid program from Niigata University of Health and Welfare (H30B05).

Author contributions

ME and TT contributed to study design and data collection, and drafted the manuscript; TI and TK contributed to data analysis and made critical revisions to the manuscript; WI, EN, RH, MI, and FK made critical revisions to the manuscript; IK supervised the study, contributed to analysis and interpretation of data, and made critical revisions to the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript prior to submission.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The methods were carried out in accordance with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, and the cadavers were legally donated for the research by the Nippon Dental University of Life Dentistry at Niigata in Japan.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from the families of all subjects.

Availability of data and material

The data sets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mutsuaki Edama
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Tomoya Takabayashi
    • 1
  • Takuma Inai
    • 1
  • Takanori Kikumoto
    • 1
  • Wataru Ito
    • 1
  • Emi Nakamura
    • 1
  • Ryo Hirabayashi
    • 1
  • Masahiro Ikezu
    • 1
  • Fumiya Kaneko
    • 1
  • Ikuo Kageyama
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Human Movement and Medical SciencesNiigata University of Health and WelfareNiigataJapan
  2. 2.Department of Anatomy, School of Life Dentistry at NiigataNippon Dental UniversityNiigataJapan

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