Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy

, Volume 40, Issue 7, pp 841–846 | Cite as

Evaluation of superior concha bullosa by computed tomography

  • Kadri İla
  • Nihat Yilmaz
  • Serkan Öner
  • Efser Başaran
  • Zülal Öner
Original Article



Concha bullosa is generally regarded as pneumatisation of the middle turbinate in the nose. However, pneumatisation may also be seen in the superior and inferior turbinate. Computed tomography (CT) of paranasal sinuses is extremely helpful for the examination of this inaccessible area. Coronal CT sections of paranasal sinuses are particularly useful for surgical anatomy, as these images show nearly the same regions as the endoscopic examinations. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the presence, incidence and unilaterality–bilaterality of superior turbinate pneumatisation and concomitant nasal pathologies.


A total of 1000 patients who underwent CT of the paranasal sinuses because of headaches, nasal obstructions, anosmia, facial pain or facial trauma were evaluated retrospectively.


Among the 1000 patients, superior pneumatized turbinate was seen on CT images of the paranasal sinuses in 149 (14.9%) cases. Of these patients, 84 were female, 65 were male, and the mean age was 38.14 years. Among 149 patients, 58 patients had bilateral superior pneumatized turbinate and the remaining 91 patients had unilateral superior pneumatized turbinate. 60.4% of the patients with superior pneumatized turbinate also had middle pneumatized turbinate.


The superior pneumatized turbinate is an anatomical variation with an incidence ranging from 12.2 to 50%. The present study revealed that there is no relationship between volume size of the superior pneumatized turbinates and sinusitis, nasal septum deviation and paradoxical middle concha. It is very important to define anatomical variations in the preoperative CT evaluation of the paranasal sinuses.


Superior concha bullosa Pneumatized turbinate CT Anatomical variation Paranasal sinuses 


Authors’ contribution

Protocol and project development Kİ and EB. Data collection SÖ and NY. Data analysis: SÖ and NY. Manuscript writing and editing Kİ and ZÖ.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OtorhinolaryngologyKarabük University Faculty of MedicineKarabükTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Radiology, Medical FacultyKarabük University Faculty of MedicineKarabükTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Anatomy, Medical FacultyKarabük University Faculty of MedicineKarabükTurkey

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