Skip to main content

Stereological evaluation of volumetric asymmetry in healthy human cerebellum

Abstract

Objectives

Age-related volumetric differences in brain anatomy or volumetric brain analyses in many disorders are of interest. Delineating the normal anatomical cerebellar volume is of importance for both the anatomists and clinicians. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the cerebellar volume using a stereological technique and to determine the possible volumetric asymmetry depending on age and gender.

Materials and methods

Volumetric asymmetry of cerebellar hemispheres was evaluated using stereological method on the magnetic resonance images (MRI) of healthy male and female subjects. Randomly selected individuals (27 males, 27 females) aged between 10–86 years who have normal brain MRI were enclosed in the study. All the subjects were right handed. The individuals were divided into three groups according to age as 18–34 (young), 35–60 (middle aged) and 60–84 (elder) and their MRI images were analyzed. The data set were analyzed by two factor repeated measure analysis.

Results

Although the cerebellum was smaller between young and middle aged groups and also middle aged and elder groups, there were no any statistically significant differences between compared groups’ mean (P > 0.05). There were not statistically differences according to sex and age groups (P > 0.05).

Conclusions

There was no cerebellar asymmetry between compared groups. The stereological evaluation of cerebellar asymmetry in humans correlate with both gender and age groups is of importance for both clinicians and anatomists. The technique is simple, reliable, unbiased and inexpensive.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Acer N, Sahin B, Usanmaz M, Tatolu H, Irmak Z (2008) Comparison of point counting and planimetry methods for the assessment of cerebellar volume in human using magnetic resonance imaging: a stereological study. Surg Radiol Anat 30:335–339

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Andersen BB, Gundersen HJ, Pakkenberg B (2003) Aging of the human cerebellum: a stereological study. J Comp Neurol 466:356–365

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Ammerman JM, Lonser RR, Oldfield EH (2007) Posterior subtemporal transtentorial approach to intraparenchymal lesions of the anteromedial region of the superior cerebellum. Neurol Neurochir Pol 41:436–444

    Google Scholar 

  4. Andersen BB, Pakkenberg B (2003) Stereological quantitation in cerebella from people with schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 82:354–361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Andreasen NC, Rajarethinam R, Cizadlo T, Arndt S, Swayze VW, Fashman LA, O’Leary DS, Ehrhardt JC, Yuh WT (1996) Automatic atlas-based volume estimation of human brain regions from MR images. J Comput Assist Tomogr 20:98–106

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Bambakidis NC, Gonzalez LF, Amin-Hanjani S, Deshmukh VR, Porter RW, Daspit PC, Spetzler RF. (2005) Combined skull base approaches to the posterior fossa. Technical note. Neurosurg Focus. 15;19(2):E8

  7. Benegal V, Antony G, Venkatasubramanian G, Jayakumar PN (2007) Gray matter volume abnormalities and externalizing symptoms in subjects at high risk for alcohol dependence. Addict Biol 12:122–132

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bloss CS, Courchesne E (2007) MRI neuroanatomy in young girls with autism: a preliminary study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:515–523

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Carne RP, Vogrin S, Litewka L, Cook MJ (2006) Cerebral cortex: an MRI-based study of volume and variance with age and sex. J Clin Neurosci 13:60–72

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Courchesne E, Townsend J, Akshoomoff NA, Saitoh O, Yeung-Courchesne R, Lincoln AJ, James HE, Haas RH, Schreibman L, Lau L (1994) Impairment in shifting attention in autistic and cerebellar patients. Behav Neurosci 108:848–865

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Guerrini L, Lolli F, Ginestroni A, Belli G, Della Nave R, Tessa C, Foresti S, Cosottini M, Piacentini S, Salvi F, Plasmati R, De Grandis D, Siciliano G, Filla A, Mascalchi M (2004) Brainstem neurodegeneration correlates with clinical dysfunction in SCA1 but not in SCA2. A quantitative volumetric, diffusion and proton spectroscopy MR study. Brain 127:1785–1795

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Heath RG, Franklin DE, Shraberg D (1979) Gross pathology of the cerebellum in patients diagnosed and treated as functional psychiatric disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis 167:585–592

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Kibby MY, Fancher JB, Markanen R, Hynd GW (2008) A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the cerebellar deficit hypothesis of dyslexia. J Child Neurol 23:368–380

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Probst A, Ulrich J, Zdrojewski B, Hirt HR (1979) Cerebellar ganglioglioma in a child. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 38:57–71

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Ramnani N (2006) The primate cortico-cerebellar system: anatomy and function. Nat Rev Neurosci 7:511–522

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Raz N, Gunning-Dixon F, Head D, Williamson A, Acker JD (2001) Age and sex differences in the TIV and the ventral pons: a prospective MR study of health adults. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 22:1161–1167

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Robins JB, Mason GC, Watters J, Martinez D (1998) Case report: cerebellar hemi-hypoplasia. Prenat Diagn 18:173–177

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Rollins NK, Wen TS, Dominguez R (1995) Crossed cerebellar atrophy in children: a neurologic sequela of extreme prematurity. Pediatr Radiol 25:20–25

    Google Scholar 

  19. Sahin B, Ergur H (2006) Assessment of the optimum section thickness for the estimation of liver volume using magnetic resonance images: a stereological gold standard study. Eur J Radiol 57:96–101

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Sato N, Yagishita A, Oba H, Miki Y, Nakata Y, Yamashita F, Nemoto K, Sugai K, Sasaki M (2007) Hemimegalencephaly: a study of abnormalities occurring outside the ınvolved hemisphere. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:678–682

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Sener RN (1997) MR demonstration of cerebral hemimegalencephaly associated with cerebellar involvement (total hemimegalencephaly). Comput Med Imaging Graph 21:201–204

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Sim ME, Lyoo IK, Streeter CC, Covell J, Sarid-Segal O, Ciraulo DA, Kim MJ, Kaufman MJ, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Renshaw PF (2007) Cerebellar gray matter volume correlates with duration of cocaine use in cocaine-dependent subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:2229–2237

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Tang Y, Whitman GT, Lopez I, Baloh RV (2001) Brain changes on longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging in normal older people. J Neuroimaging 11:393–400

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Weinberger DR, Kleinman JE, Luchins DJ, Bigelow LB, Wyatt RJ (1980) Cerebellar pathology in schizophrenia: a controlled post-mortem study. Am J Psychiatry 137:359–361

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Weinberger DR, Torrey EF, Wyatt RJ (1979) Cerebellar atrophy in chronic schizophrenia. Lancet 1:718–719

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Zhou Y, Resnick SM, Ye W, Fan H, Holt DP, Klunk WE, Mathis CA, Dannals R, Wong DF (2007) Using a reference tissue model with spatial constraint to quantify. Pittsburgh compound B PET for early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroimage 36:298–312

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgment

Special thanks are expressed to Prof. Dr. Murat Firat for skilful assistance.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nuket Gocmen-Mas.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gocmen-Mas, N., Pelin, C., Canan, S. et al. Stereological evaluation of volumetric asymmetry in healthy human cerebellum. Surg Radiol Anat 31, 177–181 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00276-008-0424-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00276-008-0424-4

Keywords

  • Cerebellum
  • Asymmetry
  • Stereology
  • Magnetic resonance imaging