Advertisement

Irrigation Science

, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp 1265–1276 | Cite as

Night-time sap flow is parabolically linked to midday water potential for field-grown almond trees

  • S. FuentesEmail author
  • M. Mahadevan
  • M. Bonada
  • M. A. Skewes
  • J. W. Cox
Original Paper

Abstract

To quantify night-time (S n) and diurnal (S d) tree water uptake, two sets of sap flow sensors (heat-pulse compensated) were installed per tree in the north-east and south-west sides of the trunk in three trees per treatment. There were two treatments: (1) control, irrigated with 100 % ETc (T100), and (2) deficit, irrigated at 60 % ETc (T60) with daily irrigations at the peak atmospheric demand (December–January). Normalised S n by trees was in the range of 15–25 % throughout the season, compared to normalised S d, for T100 and T60, respectively. Furthermore, S n was parabolically correlated to plant water status from the previous day, measured as midday stem water potential. We also found strong correlations between S n and nocturnal vapour pressure deficit for T100 and T60, indicating that nocturnal transpiration was significant for both treatments. Differences in S n were observed for the NE and SW sensors for T60, being significantly less for the NE side (sunny side) compared to the SW side (more shaded). No differences were observed for T100 regarding probe positioning.

Keywords

Vapour Pressure Deficit Irrigation Treatment Regulate Deficit Irrigation Stem Water Potential Parabolic Relationship 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge Almond Board of Australia, Berri, South Australia, for funding the project on “Minimising environmental foot prints from irrigated almonds by using new method and tools” of which the sap flow studies reported here were a part. We would also like to acknowledge Ben Brown and Brett Rosenzweig from the Almond Board of Australia for all their support and assistance for the experiment.

References

  1. Benyon RG (1999) Nighttime water use in an irrigated Eucalyptus grandis plantation. Tree Physiol 19(13):853–859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brunetti M, Buffoni L, Maugeri M, Nanni T (2000) Trends of minimum and maximum daily temperatures in Italy from 1865 to 1996. Theoret Appl Climatol 66(1):49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bucci SJ et al (2004) Processes preventing nocturnal equilibration between leaf and soil water potential in tropical savanna woody species. Tree Physiol 24(10):1119–1127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bucci SJ et al (2005) Mechanisms contributing to seasonal homeostasis of minimum leaf water potential and predawn disequilibrium between soil and plant water potential in Neotropical savanna trees. Trees Struct Funct 19(3):296–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caird MA, Richards JH, Donovan LA (2007) Nighttime stomatal conductance and transpiration in C3 and C4 plants. Plant Physiol 143(1):4–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Collins MJ, Fuentes S, Barlow EWR (2009) Partial rootzone drying and deficit irrigation increase stomatal sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit in anisohydric grapevines. Funct Plant Biol 37:129–138Google Scholar
  7. Daley MJ, Phillips NG (2006) Interspecific variation in nighttime transpiration and stomatal conductance in a mixed New England deciduous forest. Tree Physiol 26(4):411–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davies WJ, Wilkinson S, Loveys B (2002) Stomatal control by chemical signalling and the exploitation of this mechanism to increase water use efficiency in agriculture. New Phytol 153(3):449–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dodd IC (2007) Soil moisture heterogeneity during deficit irrigation alters root-to-shoot signalling of abscisic acid. Funct Plant Biol 34(5):439–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dodd IC, Egea G, Davies WJ (2008a) Abscisic acid signalling when soil moisture is heterogeneous: decreased photoperiod sap flow from drying roots limits abscisic acid export to the shoots. Plant, Cell Environ 31(9):1263–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dodd IC, Egea G, Davies WJ (2008b) Accounting for sap flow from different parts of the root system improves the prediction of xylem ABA concentration in plants grown with heterogeneous soil moisture. J Exp Bot 59(15):4083–4093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Donovan LA et al (1999) Predawn disequilibrium between plant and soil water potentials in two cold-desert shrubs. Oecologia 120(2):209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Donovan LD, Linton ML, Richards JR (2001) Predawn plant water potential does not necessarily equilibrate with soil water potential under well-watered conditions. Oecologia 129(3):328–335Google Scholar
  14. Donovan LA, Richards JH, Linton MJ (2003) Magnitude and mechanisms of disequilibrium between predawn plant and soil water potentials. Ecology 84(2):463–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Easterling DR et al (1997) Maximum and minimum temperature trends for the globe. Science 277(5324):364–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Egea G, Dodd IC, González-Real MM, Domingo R, Baille A (2011) Partial rootzone drying improves almond tree leaf-level water use efficiency and afternoon water status compared with regulated deficit irrigation. Funct Plant Biol 38(5):372–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Escalona J et al. (2012) Responses of leaf night respiration and transpiration to water stress in Vitis vinifera L. Agric Water Manag 118:50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fisher JB, Baldocchi DD, Misson L, Dawson TE, Goldstein AH (2007) What the towers don’t see at night: nocturnal sap flow in trees and shrubs at two AmeriFlux sites in California. Tree Physiol 27(4):597–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Flexas J et al (2002) Effects of drought on photosynthesis in grapevines under field conditions: an evaluation of stomatal and mesophyll limitations. Funct Plant Biol 29(4):461–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fuentes S, Palmer AR, Taylor D, Zeppel M, Whitley R, Eamus D (2008) An automated procedure for estimating the leaf area index (LAI) of woodland ecosystems using digital imagery, Matlab® programming and its application to an examination of the relationship between remotely sensed and field measurements of LAI. Funct Plant Biol 35:1070–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fuentes S, De Bei R, Collins M, Escalona JM, Medrano H, Tyerman S (2013) Night-time responses to water supply in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) under deficit irrigation and partial root-zone drying. Irrig Sci (under review)Google Scholar
  22. FuBeder A, Wartinger A, Hartung W, Schulze ED, Heilmeier H (1992) Cytokinins in the xylem sap of desert-grown almond (Prunus dulcis) trees: daily courses and their possible interactions with abscisic acid and leaf conductance. New Phytol 122(1):45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fulton A et al (2001) Rapid equilibration of leaf and stem water potential under field conditions in almonds, walnuts and prunes. Hort Technol 11(4):609–614Google Scholar
  24. Green S (1998) Measurements of sap flow by the heat-pulse method. HortResearch, Palmerston NorthGoogle Scholar
  25. Green SR, McNaughton KG, Clothier BE (1989) Observations of night-time water use in kiwifruit vines and apple trees. Agric For Meteorol 48(3&4):251–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Green S, Clothier B, Jardine B (2003) Theory and practical application of heat pulse to measure sap flow. Agron J 95(6):1371–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kavanagh KL, Pangle R, Schotzko AD (2007) Nocturnal transpiration causing disequilibrium between soil and stem predawn water potential in mixed conifer forests of Idaho. Tree Physiol 27(4):621–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liang JS, Zhang JH (1999) The relations of stomatal closure and reopening to xylem ABA concentration and leaf water potential during soil drying and rewatering. Plant Growth Regul 29(1–2):77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Loveys BR, Dry PR, Stoll M, McCarthy MG (2000) Using plant physiology to improve the water use efficiency of horticultural crops. Acta Horticulturae 537(1):187–197Google Scholar
  30. Mayo NE, Scott SC, Ahmed S (2009) Case management poststroke did not induce response shift: the value of residuals. J Clin Epidemiol 62(11):1148–1156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McCarthy MG, Loveys BR, Dry PR, Stoll M (2002) Regulated deficit irrigation and partial rootzone drying as irrigation management techniques for grapevines. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  32. Monzon JP, Sadras VO, Andrade FH (2006) Fallow soil evaporation and water storage as affected by stubble in sub-humid (Argentina) and semi-arid (Australia) environments. Field Crops Res 98(2&3):83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moore GW, Cleverly JR, Owens MK (2008) Nocturnal transpiration in riparian Tamarix thickets authenticated by sap flux, eddy covariance and leaf gas exchange measurements. Tree Physiol 28(4):521–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nortes PA, Perez-Pastor A, Egea G, Conejero W, Domingo R (2005) Comparison of changes in stem diameter and water potential values for detecting water stress in young almond trees. Agric Water Manag 77(1&3):296–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Oren R et al (1999) Survey and synthesis of intra- and inter-specific variation in stomatal sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit. Plant, Cell Environ 22(12):1515–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Phillips NG, Lewis JD, Logan BA, Tissue DT (2010) Inter- and intra-specific variation in nocturnal water transport in Eucalyptus. Tree Physiol 30(5):586–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rayment GE, Higginson FR (1992) Australian laboratory handbook of soil and water chemical methods. Inkata Press, Melbourne, p 330Google Scholar
  38. Remorini D, Massai R (2003) Comparison of water status indicators for young peach trees. Irrig Sci 22(1):39–46Google Scholar
  39. Rodrigues ML et al (2008) Hydraulic and chemical signalling in the regulation of stomatal conductance and plant water use in field grapevines growing under deficit irrigation. Funct Plant Biol 35(7):565–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rogiers SY, Greer DH, Hutton RJ, Landsberg JJ (2009) Does night-time transpiration contribute to anisohydric behaviour in a Vitis vinifera cultivar? J Exp Bot 60(13):3751–3763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Romero P, Navarro JM, Garcia F, Ordaz PB (2004) Effects of regulated deficit irrigation during the pre-harvest period on gas exchange, leaf development and crop yield of mature almond trees. Tree Physiol 24(3):303–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Romero P, Dodd IC, Martinez-Cutillas A (2012) Contrasting physiological effects of partial root zone drying in field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell) according to total soil water availability. J Exp Bot 63(11):4071–4083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sadras VO, Moran MA (2012) Elevated temperature decouples anthocyanins and sugars in berries of Shiraz and Cabernet Franc. Aust J Grape Wine Res 18:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Saxton KE, Rawls WJ (2006) Soil water characteristic estimates by texture and organic matter for hydrologic solutions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70(5):1569–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Saxton KE, Willey PH (2004) Agricultural wetland and pond hydrologic analysis using SPAW model. ASAE, St PaulGoogle Scholar
  46. Sellin A (1999) Does pre-dawn water potential reflect conditions of equilibrium in plant and soil water status? Acta Oecologica 20(1):51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shackel KA (1995) Plant water status as an index of irrigation needs in deciduous fruit trees. HortScience 30(4):905Google Scholar
  48. Snyder KA, Richards JH, Donovan LA (2003) Night, Äêtime conductance in C3 and C4 species: do plants lose water at night? J Exp Bot 54(383):861–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sousa TA, Oliveira MT, Pereira JM (2006) Physiological indicators of plant water status of irrigated and non-irrigated grapevines grown in a low rainfall area of Portugal. Plant Soil 282(1–2):127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stevens R, Ewenz C, Grigson G, Conner S (2012) Water use by an irrigated almond orchard. Irrig Sci 30(3):189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tang K, Beaton DE, Gignac MAM, Bombardier C (2011) Rasch analysis informed modifications to the Work Instability Scale for Rheumatoid Arthritis for use in work-related upper limb disorders. J Clin Epidemiol 64(11):1242–1251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang H et al (2008) Nocturnal sap flow characteristics and stem water recharge of Acacia mangium. Frontiers For China 3(1):72–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wartinger A, Heilmeier H, Hartung W, Schulze ED (1990) Daily and seasonal courses of leaf conductance and abscisic acid in the xylem sap of almond trees [Prunus dulcis (Miller) D. A. Webb] under desert conditions. New Phytol 116(4):581–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wilkinson S, Davies WJ (2002) ABA-based chemical signalling: the co-ordination of responses to stress in plants. Plant, Cell Environ 25(2):195–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zeppel M, Tissue D, Taylor D, Macinnis-Ng C, Eamus D (2010) Rates of nocturnal transpiration in two evergreen temperate woodland species with differing water-use strategies. Tree Physiol 30(8):988–1000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang J, Zhang X (1994) Can early wilting of old leaves account for much of the ABA accumulation in flooded pea plants? J Exp Bot 45(9):1335–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Fuentes
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Mahadevan
    • 2
  • M. Bonada
    • 1
    • 3
  • M. A. Skewes
    • 4
  • J. W. Cox
    • 1
  1. 1.Melbourne School of Land and EnvironmentUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.South Australian Research and Development InstituteAdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.Estación Experimental MendozaInstituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA)Luján de CuyoArgentina
  4. 4.Loxton Research CentreSouth Australian Research and Development InstituteLoxtonAustralia

Personalised recommendations