Skip to main content

Challenges of Interventional Radiology in Brazil!

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  1. Lee MJ, Belli AM, Brountzos E, Morgan R, Reekers JA. Specialty status for interventional radiology: the time is now. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2014;37(4):862.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Makris GC, Burrows V, Lyall F, et al. Vascular and interventional radiology training; international perspectives and challenges. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2020.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. Lee MJ. Commentary on ‘“vascular and interventional radiology training: international perspectives and challenges.”’ Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2021;44(3):473–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Tong E, Spooner M, Van Delden O, Uberoi R, Sheehan M, O’Neill DC, Lee M. The European board of interventional radiology examination: a cross-sectional web-based survey. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2018;41(1):21–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Wholey Mark H, Haller Jordan D. An introduction to the Food and Drug Administration and how it evaluates new devices: establishing safety and efficacy. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 1995;18(2):72–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Wah TM, Belli AM. The Interventional Radiology (IR) gender gap: a prospective online survey by the Cardiovascular and interventional radiological society of Europe (CIRSE). Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2018;41(8):1241–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This study was not supported by any funding.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vinicius Adami Vayego Fornazari.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Consent for Publication

For this type of study consent for publication is not required.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

For this type of study informed consent is not required.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fornazari, V.A.V., da Motta-Leal-Filho, J.M. Challenges of Interventional Radiology in Brazil!. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 45, 1570–1571 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: