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Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation for Treatment of Gastric Varices: Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Outcomes

  • Clinical Investigation
  • TIPS
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To quantify the pooled clinical outcomes of stent-graft transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation for the management of gastric varices (GVs) through systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.

Materials and methods

A PubMed and Embase search was performed from 2003 to 2020. Search terms included: (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt OR TIPS) AND (gastric varices OR fundal varices OR gastroesophageal varices OR gastroesophageal varices) AND (hemorrhage OR rebleeding OR rebleeding OR survival). Inclusion criteria spanned: English language studies, publication in peer reviewed journals, sample size ≥ 10, reported clinical outcome data, exclusive treatment of GVs (no esophageal varices), exclusive use of stent-grafts for TIPS, no chemical obliteration of GVs. Outcomes included GV rebleeding rate, overall rebleeding rate, GV occlusion rate, hepatic encephalopathy (HE) incidence, and adverse event (AE) rate.


Literature search yielded 936 articles. Of these, 5 (0.5%) retrospective observational cohort studies met inclusion criteria, spanning 209 patients (quinquagenarian men with viral or alcoholic liver disease) with GVs treated using TIPS with adjunctive coil embolization (47%). Clinical follow-up time ranged from 4.3 to 30.6 months. Outcomes included a pooled GV rebleeding rate of 15% (95% CI: 11%, 20%), total rebleeding rate of 21% (95% CI: 15%, 27%), GV occlusion rate of 33% (95% CI: 22%, 45%), HE incidence of 30% (95% CI: 24%, 36%), and AE incidence of 3% (95% CI: 1%, 8%).


The incidence of GV rebleeding after stent-graft TIPS is high. The results suggest the need for additional measures to reduce recurrent hemorrhage incidence from GVs.

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The project described was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, through Grant UL1TR002003. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

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Correspondence to Ron C. Gaba.

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Ron C. Gaba receives research support from Guerbet USA LLC, Janssen Research & Development LLC, and the United States National Institutes of Health. He is a consultant for Sus Clinicals, Inc. The remaining authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Alqadi, M.M., Chadha, S., Patel, S.S. et al. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation for Treatment of Gastric Varices: Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Outcomes. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 44, 1231–1239 (2021).

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