CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 176–185 | Cite as

CIRSE Standards of Practice on Prostatic Artery Embolisation

  • Francois H. CornelisEmail author
  • Tiago Bilhim
  • Nigel Hacking
  • Marc Sapoval
  • Charles R. Tapping
  • Francisco Cesar Carnevale
CIRSE Standards of Practice

Rationale of PAE

Epidemiology Including Clinical Features

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a benign proliferation of stromal and epithelial cells combined with decreased programmed cell death [1], leading to both fibroadenomatous hyperplasia and an increase in the glandular part of the prostate, and thus eventually an enlarged overall prostate volume [2]. BPH produces lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which include an irritative micturition syndrome in the storage phase: increased nycturia, frequent urination of small amounts, involuntary urge to urinate and dysuria, but also bladder outlet obstruction during the emptying phase: delayed start of micturition, prolonged micturition time, weakening of the urinary stream and a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder. Prostate size and symptoms are not necessarily correlated. BPH is highly prevalent, affecting up to 50% of males at the age of 50 years and 90% of males over 80 years. It is estimated that symptomatic BPH...



Benign prostatic hyperplasia


Cone-beam CT


International Index of Erectile Function


International Prostate Symptom Score


Lower urinary tract symptoms


Prostatic artery embolisation


Proximal Embolization First, Then Embolize Distal


Prostate-Specific Antigen


Post-void residual volume


Quality of life


Transurethral resection of the prostate


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

T. Bilhim is on the Advisory Board of Merit Medical, is a consultant for Terumo, a stock holder in the company “Embolx” and has a speaker agreement with Philips. M. Sapoval is a consultant for Merit Medical and has received research grants from BTG and Merit Medical. All other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

270_2019_2379_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (46 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 46 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Tenon HospitalSorbonne UniversityParisFrance
  2. 2.Department of Interventional Radiology, Saint Louis Hospital and Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa CentralNova Medical SchoolLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Clinical RadiologySouthampton University HospitalsSouthamptonUK
  4. 4.Vascular and Oncologic Interventional Radiology DepartmentGeorges Pompidou European HospitalParisFrance
  5. 5.Faculty of MedicineParis Descartes UniversityParisFrance
  6. 6.INSERM U970ParisFrance
  7. 7.Department of RadiologyChurchill HospitalOxfordUK
  8. 8.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Sao Paulo Medical SchoolSão PauloBrazil

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