CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 41, Issue 9, pp 1302–1312 | Cite as

Portal Vein Embolization Utilizing N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Contralateral Lobe Hypertrophy Prior to Liver Resection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Ethan Wajswol
  • Tarek Jazmati
  • Sohail Contractor
  • Abhishek KumarEmail author



To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for portal vein embolization (PVE) when used to induce contralateral future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy in patients undergoing planned hepatic resection for hepatic malignancy.

Materials and Methods

The PubMed database (including articles indexed by MEDLINE) was searched for articles published from 1970 to 2018 describing patients treated with PVE utilizing NBCA to induce hypertrophy of the FLR prior to contralateral hepatic lobe resection. Demographic data, embolization technique, complications of embolization, resultant FLR hypertrophy, and surgical outcomes were obtained when available. A meta-analysis was performed to determine the cumulative relative hypertrophy rate of the FLR following PVE with NBCA.


The literature search yielded 18 relevant articles. Six hundred and seven patients (383 men, 220 women; mean age 60.7 years) with procedures describing PVE utilizing NBCA were reviewed. The most common underlying hepatic malignancies were colorectal metastases (n = 348), followed by cholangiocarcinomas (n = 92), and hepatocellular carcinomas (n = 89). Technical success was reportedly achieved in 603/607 patients, for a success rate of 99.3%. Fixed effects meta-analysis of the relative hypertrophy rate of the FLR among studies resulted in an aggregate rate of 49.4 ± 1.3%. Of the patients who underwent attempted PVE, 461/607 (75.9%) eventually underwent surgical resection. Major complications following PVE occurred in 19 patients (3.13%), while minor complications following PVE occurred in 38 patients (6.26%).


PVE utilizing NBCA to induce hypertrophy of the FLR prior to contralateral lobe resection in the setting of hepatic malignancy is safe and effective.

Level of Evidence

Level IIa—Systematic review of cohort studies.


Portal vein embolization Future liver remnant (FLR) Relative hypertrophy rate n-Butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) 


Authors’ Contribution

Ethan Wajswol, B.S, Tarek Jazmati, MD, Sohail Contractor, MD, Abhishek Kumar, MD, helped in acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, draft of the manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animals Rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rutgers New Jersey Medical SchoolNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiology, New Jersey Medical SchoolRutgers UniversityNewarkUSA

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