Response Assessment by Volumetric Iodine Uptake Measurement: Preliminary Experience in Patients with Intermediate-Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Yttrium-90 Radioembolization
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To retrospectively compare early response to yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y90) according to volumetric iodine uptake (VIU) changes, Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumor 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) and modified RECIST (mRECIST) in patients with intermediate-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to explore their association with survival.
Materials and Methods
Twenty-four patients treated with Y90 and evaluated with dual-energy computed tomography before and 6 weeks after treatment were included. VIU was measured on late arterial phase spectral images; 6-week VIU response was defined as: complete response (CR, absence of enhancing tumor), partial response (PR, ≥ 15% VIU reduction), progressive disease (PD, ≥ 10% VIU increase) and stable disease (criteria of CR/PR/PD not met). RECIST 1.1 and mRECIST were evaluated at 6 weeks and 6 months. Responders included CR and PR. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated by Kaplan–Meier analysis and compared by Cox regression analysis.
High intraobserver and interobserver agreements were observed in VIU measurements (k > 0.98). VIU identified a higher number of responders (18 patients, 75%), compared to RECIST 1.1 (12.5% at 6 weeks and 23.8% at 6 months) and mRECIST (29.2% at 6 weeks and 61.9% at 6 months). There was no significant correlation between OS and RECIST 1.1 (P = 0.45 at 6 weeks; P = 0.21 at 6 months) or mRECIST (P = 0.38 at 6 weeks; P = 0.79 at 6 months); median OS was significantly higher in VIU responders (17.2 months) compared to non-responders (7.4 months) (P = 0.0022; HR 8.85; 95% CI 1.29–88.1).
VIU is highly reproducible; as opposite to mRECIST and RECIST 1.1, early VIU response correlates with OS after Y90 in intermediate-advanced HCC patients.
KeywordsHepatocellular carcinoma Tumor response Survival Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Computed tomography Dual energy
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Irene Bargellini received honoraria from GE Healthcare, Biocompatibles UK LTD, Sirtex, Bayer Spa; Laura Crocetti received honoraria from GE Healthcare; the remaining authors have no conflict of interests to declare.
All procedures performed in the study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.
For this type of study, informed consent was waived by the Local Ethical Committee.
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