CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 366–376 | Cite as

Modern Techniques of Lymphangiography and Interventions: Current Status and Future Development

  • Maxim Itkin
  • Gregory J. Nadolski


One of the crucial functions of the lymphatic system is maintenance of fluid balance. Nonetheless, due to lack of clinical imaging and interventional techniques, the lymphatic system has been under the radar of the medical community. The recently developed intranodal lymphangiography and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR lymphangiography provide new insight into lymphatic pathology. Thoracic duct embolization has become the method of choice for the treatment of patients with chylous leaks. Interstitial lymphatic embolization further expanded the lymphatic embolization approaches. Liver lymphatic lymphangiography and embolization allow treatment of postsurgical liver lymphorrhea and protein-losing enteropathy. The potential for further growth of lymphatic interventions is vast and includes liver lymphatic procedures and advanced thoracic duct interventions, such as thoracic duct externalization and stenting. These current and future advances will open up a realm of new treatments and diagnostic opportunities.


Lymphatic disorders Lymphangiography Embolization MR lymphangiography 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Maxim Itkin: Guerbet Group research support and speaking engagement. Gregory Nadolski: Research Support Guerbet group.

Ethical Approval Statement

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HUP/CHOP Center for Lymphatic Imaging and Interventions, Penn MedicineChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

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