Spontaneous hematoma refractory to conservative management is a potentially serious condition that requires prompt diagnosis and intervention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in the treatment planning and to report the effectiveness of transcatheter embolization with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA).
Materials and Methods
Forty-one interventions in 38 patients within a 12-year period were evaluated. CT and angiograms were reviewed for the location of the hematoma, the presence of extravasation, and the correlation of CT and angiography findings.
Arterial extravasation was present on 34/39 CT scans. Angiograms confirmed the CT scans in 29 cases. Angiograms revealed extravasation in four cases which CT showed venous bleeding (n = 2) or no bleeding (n = 2). Five patients with arterial and 1 patient with venous extravasation on CT images had no extravasation on angiograms. Embolization was performed to all arteries with extravasation on angiograms. Empiric embolization of the corresponding artery on the CT was performed when there was no extravasation on angiograms. Embolization procedures were performed with 15 % NBCA diluted with iodized oil. Technical success was achieved in 40/41 (97.6 %) interventions. Clinical success was achieved in 35 patients with a single, in 1 patient with 2, and in 1 patient with 3 interventions. No complications related to embolization procedure occurred. None of the patients died due to a progression of the hematoma.
NBCA is an effective and safe embolic agent to treat hematoma refractory to conservative management. Contrast-enhanced CT may provide faster and more effective intervention.
Level of Evidence III
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This study has no financial interest and there is no grant support.
Conflict of Interest
There is no conflict of interest to declare.
Regarding embolization procedures and approval to use the data in clinical investigations were obtained from all patients included in the study group.
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Ozyer, U. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate in the Management of Spontaneous Hematomas. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 40, 41–49 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00270-016-1463-6
- Spontaneous hematoma
- Transcatheter embolization
- Rectus sheath
- Interventional radiology