Impact of 3D Rotational Angiography on Liver Embolization Procedures: Review of Technique and Applications


In the last years, the interest into interventional applications of C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) progressively raised, widening its clinical application from the original field of interventional neuroradiology to the field of peripheral procedures. Liver embolization procedures, due to their complexity and potential treatment-related life-threatening complications, represent one of the main clinical applications of this novel angiographic technique. CBCT has been demonstrated to render procedures safer and technically easier, and to predict outcome as well as to avoid major complications in different treatment scenarios (trans-arterial embolization, trans-arterial chemoembolization, selective internal radiation therapy, percutaneous portal vein embolization). This review summarizes all technical, dosimetric and procedural aspects of CBCT techniques, underlying all its potential clinical advantages in the field of liver embolization procedures. Moreover, the paper provides all the instructions to obtain the best diagnostic performance out of this novel angiographic technique.

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For all authors, there is no potential conflict of interest that could be perceived to bias our work.

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Correspondence to Pierleone Lucatelli.

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Lucatelli, P., Corona, M., Argirò, R. et al. Impact of 3D Rotational Angiography on Liver Embolization Procedures: Review of Technique and Applications. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 38, 523–535 (2015).

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  • Cone Beam CT (CBCT)
  • Interventional oncology
  • Embolization/embolisation/embolotherapy
  • Radioembolization/radioembolisation
  • Transarterial chemoembolization/embolisation (TACE)
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)