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Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Inferior Vena Cava and Right Atrial Tumors

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An Erratum to this article was published on 06 October 2009


Advanced hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) with invasion of venous systems usually indicates not only a poor prognosis but also a contraindication for transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). This study evaluated the feasibility of TACE for advanced HCC with inferior vena cava (IVC) and right atrium (RA) tumors and, also, to search for the ideal embolization particle size. Twenty-six patients who had HCC invasion into the IVC included five patients with coexistent RA tumors that were treated with TACE. The chemoembolization method was cisplatin, doxorubicin, and mitomycin C mixed with Lipiodol and Ivalon. The selection of Ivalon particles was divided into two groups based on their size: (A) >180 μm, = 9; and (B) 47–180 μm, = 17. The overall response rate was 53.8% (14/26). Based on the response to TACE, the median survival period of the entire group was 4.2 months (range, 1.5 to 76.7 months). The median survival period of the 14 responders was 13.5 months (1.5–76.7 months), and that of the 12 nonresponders, 3.3 months (2.1 to 24.3 months) (< 0.002). Comparing the two Ivalon particle sizes, the response rate was 12.5% (1/9 patients) for group A and 76.5% for group B (13/17 patients) (< 0.02). No serious complication was observed post-chemoembolization. In conclusion, TACE is a safe and effective treatment for advanced HCC with IVC and RA tumors, and small Ivalon particles (47–180 μm) are superior to large ones (>180 μm).

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Correspondence to V. P. Chuang.

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Chern, M.C., Chuang, V.P., Cheng, T. et al. Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Inferior Vena Cava and Right Atrial Tumors. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 31, 735–744 (2008).

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