CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 696–704 | Cite as

Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation and Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hypervascular Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Rate and Risk Factors for Local Recurrence

  • Tomonori MurakamiEmail author
  • Hideki Ishimaru
  • Ichiro Sakamoto
  • Masataka Uetani
  • Yohjiro Matsuoka
  • Manabu Daikoku
  • Sumihisa Honda
  • Takeshi Koshiishi
  • Toshifumi Fujimoto
Clinical Investigation



To analyze local recurrence-free rates and risk factors for recurrence following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).


One hundred and nine nodules treated by RFA and 173 nodules treated by TACE were included. Hypovascular nodules were excluded from this study. Overall local recurrence-free rates of each treatment group were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The independent risk factors of local recurrence and the hazard ratios were analyzed using Cox’s proportional-hazards regression model. Based on the results of multivariate analyses, we classified HCC nodules into four subgroups: central nodules ≤2 cm or >2 cm and peripheral nodules ≤2 cm or >2 cm. The local recurrence-free rates of these subgroups for each treatment were also calculated.


The overall local recurrence-free rate was significantly higher in the RFA group than in the TACE group (p = 0.013). The 24-month local recurrence-free rates in the RFA and TACE groups were 60.0% and 48.9%, respectively. In the RFA group, the only significant risk factor for recurrence was tumor size >2 cm in greatest dimension. In the TACE group, a central location was the only significant risk factor for recurrence. In central nodules that were ≤2 cm, the local recurrence-free rate was significantly higher in the RFA group than in the TACE group (p < 0.001). In the remaining three groups, there was no significant difference in local recurrence-free rate between the two treatment methods.


A tumor diameter of >2 cm was the only independent risk factor for local recurrence in RFA treatment, and a central location was the only independent risk factor in TACE treatment. Central lesions measuring ≤2 cm should be treated by RFA.


Chemotherapeutic embolization Hepatocellular carcinoma Liver neoplasms Radiofrequency (RF) ablation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomonori Murakami
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Hideki Ishimaru
    • 1
  • Ichiro Sakamoto
    • 2
  • Masataka Uetani
    • 3
  • Yohjiro Matsuoka
    • 1
  • Manabu Daikoku
    • 4
  • Sumihisa Honda
    • 5
  • Takeshi Koshiishi
    • 1
  • Toshifumi Fujimoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyNational Nagasaki Medical CenterOmuraJapan
  2. 2.Division of Radiological Science, Department of Radiology and Radiation BiologyNagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical SciencesNagasakiJapan
  3. 3.Division of Radiological Science, Department of Radiology and Radiation BiologyNagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical SciencesNagasakiJapan
  4. 4.Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologyNational Nagasaki Medical CenterOmuraJapan
  5. 5.Research Center for Tropical Infectious DiseasesInstitute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki UniversityNagasakiJapan

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