Physics and Chemistry of Minerals

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 95–122 | Cite as

Experimental petrology of peridotites, including effects of water and carbon on melting in the Earth’s upper mantle

Original Paper

Abstract

For over 50 years, the use of high-pressure piston/cylinder apparatus combined with an increasing diversity of microbeam analytical techniques has enabled the study of mantle peridotite compositions and of magmas derived by melting in the upper mantle. The experimental studies have been guided by the petrology and geochemistry of peridotites from diverse settings and by the remarkable range of mantle-derived magma types. Recent experimental study using FTIR spectroscopy to monitor water content of minerals has shown that fertile lherzolite (MORB-source upper mantle) at ~1,000 °C can store ~200 ppm H2O in defect sites in nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxenes, garnet and spinel). Water in excess of 200 ppm stabilizes amphibole (pargasite) at P < 3 GPa up to the lherzolite solidus. However, at P > 3 GPa, water in excess of 200 ppm appears as an aqueous vapour phase and this depresses the temperature of the upper mantle solidus. Provided the uppermost mantle (lithosphere) has H2O < 4,000 ppm, the mantle solidus has a distinctive P, T shape. The temperature of the vapour-undersaturated or dehydration solidus is approximately constant at 1,100 °C at pressures up to ~3 GPa and then decreases sharply to ~1,010 °C. The strongly negative dT/dP of the vapour-undersaturated solidus of fertile lherzolite from 2.8 to 3 GPa provides the basis for understanding the lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary. Through upward migration of near-solidus hydrous silicate melt, the asthenosphere becomes geochemically zoned with the ‘enriched’ intraplate basalt source (>500 ppm H2O) overlying the ‘depleted’ MORB source (~200 ppm H2O). From the study of primitive MOR picrites, the modern mantle potential temperature for MORB petrogenesis is ~1,430 °C. The intersection of the 1,430 °C adiabat with the vapour-saturated lherzolite solidus at ~230 km suggests that upwelling beneath mid-ocean ridges begins around this depth. In intraplate volcanism, diapiric upwelling begins from shallower depths and lower temperatures within the asthenosphere and the upwelling lherzolite is enriched in water, carbonate and incompatible elements. Magmas including olivine melilitites, olivine nephelinites, basanites, alkali picrites and tholeiitic picrites are consequences of increasing melt fraction and decreasing pressure at melt segregation. Major element, trace element and isotopic characteristics of island chain or ‘hot-spot’ magmas show that they sample geochemically distinct components in the upper mantle, differing from MORB sources. There is no evidence for higher-temperature ‘hot-spot’ magmas, relative to primitive MORB, but there is evidence for higher water, CO2 and incompatible element contents. The distinctive geochemical signatures of ‘hot-spot’ magmas and their ‘fixed’ position and long-lived activity relative to plate movement are attributed to melt components derived from melting at interfaces between old, oxidised subducted slabs (suspended beneath or within the deeper asthenosphere) and ambient, reduced mantle. In convergent margin volcanism, the inverted temperature gradients inferred for the mantle wedge above the subducting lithosphere introduce further complexity which can be explored by overlaying the phase relations of appropriate mantle and crustal lithologies. Water and carbonate derived from the subducted slab play significant roles, magmas are relatively oxidised, and distinctive primary magmas such as boninites, adakites and island arc ankaramites provide evidence for fluxing of melting in refractory harzburgite to lherzolite by slab-derived hydrous adakitic melt and by wedge-derived carbonatite.

Keywords

IMA medal lecture Upper mantle Lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary Basalt petrogenesis Lherzolite 

References

  1. Adam J (1990) The geochemistry and experimental petrology of sodic alkaline basalts from Oatlands, Tasmania. J Petrol 31:1201–1223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asimow PD, Dixon JE, Langmuir CH (2004) A hydrous melting and fractionation model for mid-ocean ridge basalts: application to the Mid-Atlantic ridge near the Azores. Geochem Geophys Geosyst (G-cubed) 5:Q01E16. doi:10.1029/2003GC000568 Google Scholar
  3. Berry AJ, Hermann J, O’Neill HSC, Foran GJ (2005) Fingerprinting the water site in mantle olivine. Geology 33:869–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brey G, Green DH (1977) Systematic study of liquidus phase relations in olivine melilitite + H2O + CO2 at high pressures and petrogenesis of an olivine melilitite magma. Contrib Mineral Petrol 61:141–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chalot-Prat F, Falloon TJ, Green DH, Hibberson WO (2010) An experimental study of liquid compositions in equilibrium with plagioclase + spinel lherzolite at low pressures (0.75GPa). J Petrol 51:2349–2376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chalot-Prat F, Falloon TJ, Green DH, Hibberson WO (2013) Melting of plagioclase + spinel lherzolite at low pressure: an experimental approach to the evolution of basaltic melt during mantle refertilisation at shallow depths. Lithos 172–3:61–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cmiral M, FitzGerald JD, Faul UH, Green DH (1998) A close look at dihedral angles and melt geometry in olivine-basalt aggregates: a TEM study. Contrib Mineral Petrol 130:336–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conceição RV, Green DH (2000) Behavior of the cotectic curve En–Ol in the system leucite–olivine–quartz under dry conditions to 2.8 GPa. Geochem Geophys Geosyst (G-cubed) 1:2000GL000071Google Scholar
  9. Davies GF (1998) Plates, plumes, mantle convection and mantle evolution. In: Jackson INS (ed) The Earth’s mantle: composition, structure and evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 228–258Google Scholar
  10. Dick HJB (1989) Abyssal peridotites, very slow spreading ridges and ocean ridge magmatism. Geol Soc Spec Pub 42:71–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Falloon TJ, Green DH (1987) Anhydrous partial melting of MORB pyrolite and other peridotite compositions at 10 kbar and implications for the origin of primitive MORB glasses. Mineral Petrol 37:181–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Falloon TJ, Green DH (1988) Anhydrous partial melting of peridotite from 8 to 35 kb and the petrogenesis of MORB. J Petrol (Special Lithosphere Issue) 29:379–414Google Scholar
  13. Falloon TJ, Green DH (1989) The solidus of carbonated, fertile peridotite. Earth Planet Sci Lett 94:364–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Falloon TJ, Green DH (1990) Solidus of carbonated fertile peridotite under fluid-saturated conditions. Geology 18:195–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Falloon TJ, Green DH, Hatton CJ, Harris KL (1988) Anhydrous partial melting of fertile and depleted peridotite from 2 to 30 kbar and application to basalt petrogenesis. J Petrol 29:257–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Falloon TJ, Green DH, Danyushevsky LV, Faul UH (1999) Peridotite Melting at 1.0 and 1.5 GPa: an experimental evaluation of techniques using diamond aggregates and mineral mixes for determination of near-solidus melts. J Petrol 40:1343–1375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Falloon TJ, Danyushevsky LV, Green DH (2001) Peridotite melting at 1 GPa: reversal experiments on partial melt compositions produced by peridotite-basalt sandwich experiments. J Petrol 42:2363–2390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Faul UH (2001) Melt retention and segregation at mid-ocean ridges. Earth Planet Sci Lett 176:339–356Google Scholar
  19. Faul UH, Jackson INS (2007) Diffusion creep of dry, melt-free olivine. J Geophys Res 112:B04204. doi:10.1029/2006JB004586(2007 Google Scholar
  20. Foley SF (2011) A reappraisal of redox melting in the Earth’s mantle as a function of tectonic setting and time. J Petrol 52:1363–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Foulger GR (2007) The “plate” model for the genesis of melting anomalies. In: Foulger GR, Jurdy DM (eds) Plates, plumes, and planetary processes, vol 430. Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 1–28. doi:10.1130/2007.2430(12)
  22. Foulger GR (2010) Plates vs plumes: a geological controversy. Wiley, Oxford, pp 1–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Frey FA, Green DH, Roy SD (1978) Integrated models of basalt petrogenesis—a study of quartz tholeiites to olivine melilitites from southeastern Australia utilizing geochemical and experimental petrological data. J Petrol 19:463–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fumagalli P, Zanchetta S, Poli S (2009) Alkali in phlogopite and amphibole and their effects on phase relations in metasomatized peridotite: a high pressure study. Contrib Mineral Petrol 158:723–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Garapic G, Faul UH, Brisson E (2013) High resolution imaging of the melt distribution in partially molten upper mantle rocks: evidence for wetted two-grain boundaries. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 14:556–566Google Scholar
  26. Green DH (1971) Composition of basaltic magmas as indicators of conditions of origin: application to oceanic volcanism. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 268:707–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Green DH (1972) Magmatic activity as the major process in the chemical evolution of the Earth’s crust and mantle. Tectonophysics 13:47–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Green DH (1973a) Conditions of melting of basanite magma from garnet peridotite. Earth Planet Sci Lett 17:456–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Green DH (1973b) Experimental melting studies on a model upper mantle composition at high pressures under water-saturated and water-undersaturated conditions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 19:37–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Green DH (1976) Experimental testing of “equilibrium” partial melting of peridotite under water-saturated, high-pressure conditions. Can Mineral 14:255–268Google Scholar
  31. Green DH, Falloon TJ (1998) Pyrolite: A Ringwood concept and its current expression. In: Jackson INS (ed) The Earth’s mantle: composition, structure and evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 311–380Google Scholar
  32. Green DH, Falloon TJ (2005) Primary magmas at mid-ocean ridges, “hotspots”, and other intraplate settings: constraints on mantle potential temperature. In: Foulger G, Natland J, Presnall D, Anderson D (eds) Plates, plumes and paradigms, vol 388. Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 217–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Green DH, Liebermann RC (1976) Phase equilibria and elastic properties of a pyrolite model for the oceanic upper mantle. Tectonophysics 32:61–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Green DH, Ringwood AE (1967) The genesis of basaltic magmas. Contr Mineral Petrol 15:103–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Green DH, Hibberson WO, Jaques AL (1979) Petrogenesis of mid-ocean ridge basalts. In: McElhinny MW (ed) The Earth: its origin, structure and evolution. Academic Press, London, pp 265–290Google Scholar
  36. Green DH, Falloon TJ, Taylor WR (1987), Mantle-derived magmas—roles of variable source peridotite and variable C–H–O fluid compositions. In: Mysen BO (ed) Magmatic processes and physicochemical principles. Geochem Soc Spec Publ No 1, pp 139–154Google Scholar
  37. Green DH, Schmidt M, Hibberson WO (2004) Island-arc ankaramites: primitive melts from fluxed refractory lherzolitic mantle. J Petrol 45:391–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Green DH, Hibberson WO, Kovacs I, Rosenthal A (2010) Water and its influence on the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary. Nature 467:448–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Green DH, Hibberson WO, Kovacs I, Rosenthal A (2011) Addendum to ‘Water and its influence on the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary’. Nature 472:504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Green DH, Hibberson WO, Rosenthal A, Kovacs I, Yaxley GM, Falloon TJ, Brink F (2014) Experimental study of the influence of water on melting and phase assemblages in the upper mantle. J Petrol 55:2067–2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grove TL, Chatterjee N, Parman SW, Medard E (2006) The influence of H2O on mantle wedge melting. Earth Planet Sci Lett 249:74–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gupta AK, Green DH (1988) The liquidus surface of the system forsterite–kalsilite–quartz at 28 kb under dry conditions, and in presence of H2O and CO2. Mineral Petrol 39:163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gupta AK, Green DH, Taylor WR (1987) The liquidus surface of the system forsterite-nepheline-silica at 28 kb. Am J Sci 287:560–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hart SR, Zindler A (1986) In search of a bulk-earth composition. Chem Geol 57:247–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hirano N, Takahashi E, Yamamoto J, Abe N, Ingle SP, Kaneoka I, Hirata T, Kimura J, Ishii T, Ogawa Y, Machida S, Suyehiro K (2006) Volcanism in response to plate flexure. Science 313:1426–1428. doi:10.1126/science.1128235 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hirschmann MM (2006) Water, melting, and the deep Earth H2O cycle. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 34:629–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jaques AL, Green DH (1980) Anhydrous melting of peridotite at 0-15 kb pressure and the genesis of tholeiitic basalts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 73:287–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Katz RF, Spiegelman M, Langmuir CH (2003) A new parameterization of hydrous mantle melting. Geochem Geophys Geosyst (G-cubed) 4:1073. doi:10.1029/2002GC000433 Google Scholar
  49. Kovacs I, Green DH, Rosenthal A, Hermann J, O’Neill HSC, Hibberson WO, Udvardi B (2012) An experimental study of water in nominally anhydrous minerals in the upper mantle near the water saturated solidus. J Petrol 53:2067–2093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kushiro I, Syono Y, Akimoto S (1968) Melting of a peridotite nodule at high pressures and high water pressures. J Geophys Res 73:6023–6029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McKenzie D, Bickle MJ (1988) The volume and composition of melt generated by extension of the lithosphere. J Petrol 29:629–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mengel K, Green DH (1989) Stability of amphibole and phlogopite in metasomatized peridotite under water-saturated and water-undersaturated conditions. In: Ross J (ed) Kimberlites and related rocks, vol. 1, their composition, occurrence, origin and emplacement. Blackwell, Melbourne, pp 571–581Google Scholar
  53. Millhollen G, Irving AJ, Wyllie PJ (1974) Melting interval of peridotite with 5.7 per cent water to 30 kilobars. J Geol 82:575–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Morgan WJ (1971) Convection plumes in the lower mantle. Nature 230:42–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mysen B, Boettcher AL (1975) Melting of a hydrous mantle: parts I and II. Phase relations of a natural peridotite at high pressures and temperatures with controlled activities of water, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. J Petrol 16:520–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nehru CE, Wyllie PJ (1975) Compositions of glasses from St. Paul’s peridotite partially melted at 20 kilobars. J Geol 83:455–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Niida K, Green DH (1999) Stability and chemical composition of pargasitic amphibole in MORB pyrolite under upper mantle conditions. Contr Mineral Petrol 135:18–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Niu YL (2004) Bulk-rock major and trace element compositions of abyssal peridotites: implications for mantle melting, melt extraction and post-melting processes beneath ocean ridges. J Petrol 45:2423–2458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Niu YL, O’Hara MJ (2008) Global correlations of ocean ridge basalt chemistry with axial depth: a new perspective. J Petrol 49:633–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Niu YL, Waggoner DG, Sinton JM, Mahoney JJ (1996) Mantle source heterogeneity and melting processes beneath seafloor spreading centers: the East Pacific Rise, 18–19 S. J Geophys Res 101:27711–27733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. O’Reilly SY, Griffin WL (1985) A xenoliths-derived geotherm for south-eastern Australia and its geophysical implications. Tectonophysics 111:41–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Odling NWA, Green DH, Harte B (1997) The determination of partial melt compositions of peridotitic systems by melt inclusion synthesis. Contrib Mineral Petrol 129:209–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ringwood AE (1962) A model for the upper mantle. J Geophys Res 67:857–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Scott JM, Hodgkinson A, Palin JM, Waight TE, Van der Meer QHA, Cooper AF (2014) Ancient melt depletion overprinted by young carbonatitic metasomatism in the New Zealand lithospheric mantle. Contr Mineral Petrol 167(1). doi:10.1007/s00410-014-0963-0
  65. Taylor WR, Green DH (1987) The petrogenetic role of methane: effect on liquidus phase relations and the solubility mechanism of reduced C–H volatiles. In: Mysen BO (ed) Magmatic processes and physicochemical principles. Geochem Soc Spec Publ No 1, pp 121–138Google Scholar
  66. Taylor WR, Green DH (1988) Measurement of reduced peridotite–C–O–H solidus and implications for redox melting of the mantle. Nature 332:239–352Google Scholar
  67. Taylor WR, Green DH (1989) The role of reduced C–O–H fluids in mantle partial melting. In: Ross J (ed) Kimberlites and related rocks, vol 14. Blackwell, Melbourne, pp 592–602Google Scholar
  68. Till CB, Grove TL, Withers AC (2012) The beginnings of hydrous mantle wedge melting. Contr Mineral Petrol 163:669–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tumiati S, Fumagalli P, Tinaboschi C, Poli S (2013) An experimental study on COH-bearing peridotite up to 3.2 GPa and implications for crust–mantle recycling. J Petrol 54:453–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wallace ME, Green DH (1988) An experimental determination of primary carbonatite magma composition. Nature 335:343–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wallace ME, Green DH (1991) The effect of bulk rock composition on the stability of amphibole in the upper mantle: implications for solidus positions and mantle metasomatism. Mineral Petrol 44:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wyllie PJ (1978) Mantle fluid compositions buffered in peridotite–CO2–H2O by carbonates, amphibole, and phlogopite. J Geol 86:687–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wyllie PJ (1979) Magmas and volatile components. Am Mineral 64:469–500Google Scholar
  74. Wyllie PJ, Huang WL, Otto J, Byrnes AP (1983) Carbonation of peridotites and decarbonation of siliceous dolomites represented in the system CaO–MgO–SiO2–CO2 to 30 kbar. Tectonophysics 100:359–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yaxley GM, Green DH (1996) Experimental reconstruction of sodic dolomitic carbonatite melts from metasomatised lithosphere. Contrib Mineral Petrol 124:359–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yaxley GM, Green DH, Kamenetsky V (1998) Carbonatite metasomatism in the southeastern Australian lithosphere. J Petrology 39:1917–1930CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Ore Deposit and Exploration Studies, School of Earth SciencesUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

Personalised recommendations