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Tumors of the Small Intestine

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This collective review includes all available case reports and series of smooth muscle (stromal) tumors of the small intestine in the world literature from 1881 to 1996. We identified 1074 patients with leiomyoma (LM) and 1689 with leiomyosarcoma (LMS). Our purpose was to update our previous review, which encompassed case reports and series from 1881 to 1959, which included 350 LMs and 257 LMSs. The peak incidence of smooth muscle tumors in the small intestine in both male and female patients was between the ages of 50 and 59. Most commonly, the presenting complaint was gastrointestinal bleeding. Computed tomography was found to detect LM and LMS most successfully and had the additional advantage of locating metastatic disease. The jejunum contained the highest numbers of smooth muscle tumors, followed by the ileum and then the duodenum, with malignant lesions in all locations typically attaining larger diameters than benign tumors. The overall rate of metastatic spread of LMS ranged from 24% to 50%, with the liver being most commonly involved. Unlike other sarcomas, both hematogenous and lymphatic spread were common. The 5-year survival of 705 patients with LMS from 22 series was 27.8%. For both benign and malignant smooth muscle tumors of the small intestine, surgery remains the treatment of choice, with little efficacy reported for irradiation, chemotherapy, or both.

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Blanchard, D., Budde, J., Hatch, III, G. et al. Tumors of the Small Intestine. World J. Surg. 24, 421–429 (2000).

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