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Surgical Management of Early Colorectal Cancer

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An early colorectal carcinoma is TNM stage T1NxMx. Most early carcinomas of the colon and rectum can be treated by adequate local excision, such as colonoscopic polypectomy and per-anal excision. If there are adverse risk factors, especially poorly differentiated carcinoma, lymphovascular invasion, or incomplete excision, a radical resection is indicated if there is no contraindication. In the case of a low rectal carcinoma, adjuvant chemoradiation should be considered. Recently a new classification has been developed: sm1 is invasion to the upper one-third of the submucosa, sm2 is invasion to the middle one-third, and sm3 is invasion to the lower one-third. Lesions of sm1 and sm2 have a low risk of local recurrence and lymph node metastasis; local excision is adequate. The sm3 lesions and sm2 flat and depressed types have a high risk of local recurrence and lymph node metastasis; further treatment is indicated.

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E-pub: 3 July 2000

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Nivatvongs, S. Surgical Management of Early Colorectal Cancer. World J. Surg. 24, 1052–1055 (2000).

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