Guidelines for Perioperative Care for Pancreatoduodenectomy: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Recommendations 2019

Abstract

Background

Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways are now implemented worldwide with strong evidence that adhesion to such protocol reduces medical complications, costs and hospital stay. This concept has been applied for pancreatic surgery since the first published guidelines in 2012. This study presents the updated ERAS recommendations for pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) based on the best available evidence and on expert consensus.

Methods

A systematic literature search was conducted in three databases (Embase, Medline Ovid and Cochrane Library Wiley) for the 27 developed ERAS items. Quality of randomized trials was assessed using the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement checklist. The level of evidence for each item was determined using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation system. The Delphi method was used to validate the final recommendations.

Results

A total of 314 articles were included in the systematic review. Consensus among experts was reached after three rounds. A well-implemented ERAS protocol with good compliance is associated with a reduction in medical complications and length of hospital stay. The highest level of evidence was available for five items: avoiding hypothermia, use of wound catheters as an alternative to epidural analgesia, antimicrobial and thromboprophylaxis protocols and preoperative nutritional interventions for patients with severe weight loss (> 15%).

Conclusions

The current updated ERAS recommendations for PD are based on the best available evidence and processed by the Delphi method. Prospective studies of high quality are encouraged to confirm the benefit of current updated recommendations.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. 1.

    Cerantola Y, Valerio M, Persson B, Jichlinski P, Ljungqvist O, Hubner M et al (2013) Guidelines for perioperative care after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS (R)) society recommendations. Clin Nutr 32(6):879–887

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Muller S, Zalunardo MP, Hubner M, Clavien PA, Demartines N, Grp ZFTS (2009) A fast-track program reduces complications and length of hospital stay after open colonic surgery. Gastroenterology 136(3):842–847

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Roulin D, Donadini A, Gander S, Griesser AC, Blanc C, Hubner M et al (2013) Cost-effectiveness of the implementation of an enhanced recovery protocol for colorectal surgery. Br J Surg 100(8):1108–1114

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Lassen K, Coolsen MME, Slim K, Carli F, de Aguilar-Nascimento JE, Schäfer M et al (2012) Guidelines for perioperative care for pancreaticoduodenectomy: enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS®) society recommendations. Clin Nutr 31(6):817–830

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ji HB, Zhu WT, Wei Q, Wang XX, Wang HB, Chen QP (2018) Impact of enhanced recovery after surgery programs on pancreatic surgery: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol 24(15):1666–1678

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Schulz KF, Altman DG, Moher D, Grp C (2010) CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomized trials. Ann Intern Med 152(11):726-W293

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Schunemann HJ, Oxman AD, Brozek J, Glasziou P, Bossuyt P, Chang S et al (2008) GRADE: assessing the quality of evidence for diagnostic recommendations. Ann Intern Med 149(12):JC6-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Melloul E, Hubner M, Scott M, Snowden C, Prentis J, Dejong CHC et al (2016) Guidelines for perioperative care for liver surgery: enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) society recommendations. World J Surg 40(10):2425–2440. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-016-3700-1

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Pike I, Piedt S, Davison CM, Russell K, Macpherson AK, Pickett W (2015) Youth injury prevention in Canada: use of the Delphi method to develop recommendations. BMC Public Health 15:1274

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Haines TP, Hill AM, Hill KD, McPhail S, Oliver D, Brauer S et al (2011) Patient education to prevent falls among older hospital inpatients: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 171(6):516–524

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Edward GM, Naald N, Oort FJ, de Haes HC, Biervliet JD, Hollmann MW et al (2011) Information gain in patients using a multimedia website with tailored information on anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 106(3):319–324

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Stergiopoulou A, Birbas K, Katostaras T, Mantas J (2007) The effect of interactive multimedia on preoperative knowledge and postoperative recovery of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods Inf Med 46(4):406–409

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Halaszynski TM, Juda R, Silverman DG (2004) Optimizing postoperative outcomes with efficient preoperative assessment and management. Crit Care Med 32(4 Suppl):S76–S86

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Hounsome J, Lee A, Greenhalgh J, Lewis SR, Schofield-Robinson OJ, Coldwell CH et al (2017) A systematic review of information format and timing before scheduled adult surgery for peri-operative anxiety. Anaesthesia 72(10):1265–1272

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Carli F, Charlebois P, Stein B, Feldman L, Zavorsky G, Kim DJ et al (2010) Randomized clinical trial of prehabilitation in colorectal surgery. Br J Surg 97(8):1187–1197

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Barberan-Garcia A, Ubre M, Roca J, Lacy AM, Burgos F, Risco R et al (2018) Personalised prehabilitation in high-risk patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery: a randomized blinded controlled trial. Ann Surg 267(1):50–56

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Saleh MM, Norregaard P, Jorgensen HL, Andersen PK, Matzen P (2002) Preoperative endoscopic stent placement before pancreaticoduodenectomy: a meta-analysis of the effect on morbidity and mortality. Gastrointest Endosc 56(4):529–534

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Sewnath ME, Birjmohun RS, Rauws EA, Huibregtse K, Obertop H, Gouma DJ (2001) The effect of preoperative biliary drainage on postoperative complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy. J Am Coll Surg 192(6):726–734

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Wang CC, Kao JH (2010) Preoperative drainage in pancreatic cancer. N Engl J Med 362(14):1343 author reply 5

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Velanovich V, Kheibek T, Khan M (2009) Relationship of postoperative complications from preoperative biliary stents after pancreaticoduodenectomy. A new cohort analysis and meta-analysis of modern studies. JOP 10(1):24–29

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Garcea G, Chee W, Ong SL, Maddern GJ (2010) Preoperative biliary drainage for distal obstruction: the case against revisited. Pancreas 39(2):119–126

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Sun C, Yan G, Li Z, Tzeng CM (2014) A meta-analysis of the effect of preoperative biliary stenting on patients with obstructive jaundice. Medicine (Baltimore) 93(26):e189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Chen Y, Ou G, Lian G, Luo H, Huang K, Huang Y (2015) Effect of preoperative biliary drainage on complications following pancreatoduodenectomy: a meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 94(29):e1199

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Moole H, Bechtold M, Puli SR (2016) Efficacy of preoperative biliary drainage in malignant obstructive jaundice: a meta-analysis and systematic review. World J Surg Oncol 14(1):182

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Scheufele F, Schorn S, Demir IE, Sargut M, Tieftrunk E, Calavrezos L et al (2017) Preoperative biliary stenting versus operation first in jaundiced patients due to malignant lesions in the pancreatic head: a meta-analysis of current literature. Surgery 161(4):939–950

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Lee PJ, Podugu A, Wu D, Lee AC, Stevens T, Windsor JA (2018) Preoperative biliary drainage in resectable pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. HPB 20(6):477–486

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Fang Y, Gurusamy KS, Wang Q, Davidson BR, Lin H, Xie X et al (2012) Pre-operative biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9:CD005444

    PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Qiu YD, Bai JL, Xu FG, Ding YT (2011) Effect of preoperative biliary drainage on malignant obstructive jaundice: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol 17(3):391–396

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Shaib Y, Rahal MA, Rammal MO, Mailhac A, Tamim H (2017) Preoperative biliary drainage for malignant biliary obstruction: results from a national database. J Hepato-Biliary-Pancreat Sci 24(11):637–642

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    De Pastena M, Marchegiani G, Paiella S, Malleo G, Ciprani D, Gasparini C et al (2018) Impact of preoperative biliary drainage on postoperative outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy: an analysis of 1500 consecutive cases. Dig Endosc 30(6):777–784

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    van der Gaag NA, Rauws EA, van Eijck CH, Bruno MJ, van der Harst E, Kubben FJ et al (2010) Preoperative biliary drainage for cancer of the head of the pancreas. N Engl J Med 362(2):129–137

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Lee PJ, Podugu A, Wu D, Lee AC, Stevens T, Windsor JA (2018) Preoperative biliary drainage in resectable pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. HPB (Oxford) 20(6):477–486

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Eisenberg JD, Rosato EL, Lavu H, Yeo CJ, Winter JM (2015) Delayed gastric emptying after pancreaticoduodenectomy: an analysis of risk factors and cost. J Gastrointest Surg 19(9):1572–1580

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Aoki S, Miyata H, Konno H, Gotoh M, Motoi F, Kumamaru H et al (2017) Risk factors of serious postoperative complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy and risk calculators for predicting postoperative complications: a nationwide study of 17,564 patients in Japan. J Hepato-Biliary-Pancreat Sci 24(5):243–251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Lindstrom D, Sadr Azodi O, Wladis A, Tonnesen H, Linder S, Nasell H et al (2008) Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation intervention on postoperative complications: a randomized trial. Ann Surg 248(5):739–745

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Moller AM, Villebro N, Pedersen T, Tonnesen H (2002) Effect of preoperative smoking intervention on postoperative complications: a randomised clinical trial. Lancet 359(9301):114–117

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Sorensen LT, Jorgensen T (2003) Short-term pre-operative smoking cessation intervention does not affect postoperative complications in colorectal surgery: a randomized clinical trial. Colorectal Dis 5(4):347–352

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Eliasen M, Gronkjaer M, Skov-Ettrup LS, Mikkelsen SS, Becker U, Tolstrup JS et al (2013) Preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Surg 258(6):930–942

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Hu BY, Wan T, Zhang WZ, Dong JH (2016) Risk factors for postoperative pancreatic fistula: analysis of 539 successive cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy. World J Gastroenterol 22(34):7797–7805

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Oppedal K, Moller AM, Pedersen B, Tonnesen H (2012) Preoperative alcohol cessation prior to elective surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7:CD008343

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Aahlin EK, Trano G, Johns N, Horn A, Soreide JA, Fearon KC et al (2015) Risk factors, complications and survival after upper abdominal surgery: a prospective cohort study. BMC Surg 15:83

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Olson SH, Xu Y, Herzog K, Saldia A, DeFilippis EM, Li P et al (2016) Weight loss, diabetes, fatigue, and depression preceding pancreatic cancer. Pancreas 45(7):986–991

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Weimann A, Braga M, Harsanyi L, Laviano A, Ljungqvist O, Soeters P et al (2006) ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition: surgery including organ transplantation. Clin Nutr 25(2):224–244

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Weimann A, Braga M, Carli F, Higashiguchi T, Hubner M, Klek S et al (2017) ESPEN guideline: clinical nutrition in surgery. Clin Nutr 36(3):623–650

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Lassen K, Hvarphiye A, Myrmel T (2012) Randomised trials in surgery: the burden of evidence. Rev Recent Clin Trials 7(3):244–248

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Probst P, Haller S, Bruckner T, Ulrich A, Strobel O, Hackert T et al (2017) Prospective trial to evaluate the prognostic value of different nutritional assessment scores in pancreatic surgery (NURIMAS Pancreas). Br J Surg 104(8):1053–1062

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Gianotti L, Besselink MG, Sandini M, Hackert T, Conlon K, Gerritsen A et al (2018) Nutritional support and therapy in pancreatic surgery: a position paper of the International Study Group on Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS). Surgery 164(5):1035–1048

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Poch B, Lotspeich E, Ramadani M, Gansauge S, Beger HG, Gansauge F (2007) Systemic immune dysfunction in pancreatic cancer patients. Langenbecks Arch Surg 392(3):353–358

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Ashida R, Okamura Y, Wakabayashi-Nakao K, Mizuno T, Aoki S, Uesaka K (2018) The impact of preoperative enteral nutrition enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid on postoperative hypercytokinemia after pancreatoduodenectomy: the results of a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Dig Surg 36:1–9

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Senkal M, Haaker R, Linseisen J, Wolfram G, Homann HH, Stehle P (2005) Preoperative oral supplementation with long-chain Ω-3 fatty acids beneficially alters phospholipid fatty acid patterns in liver, gut mucosa, and tumor tissue. J Parenter Enter Nutr 29(4):236–240

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Mazaki T, Ishii Y, Murai I (2015) Immunoenhancing enteral and parenteral nutrition for gastrointestinal surgery: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. Ann Surg 261(4):662–669

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Drover JW, Dhaliwal R, Weitzel L, Wischmeyer PE, Ochoa JB, Heyland DK (2011) Perioperative use of arginine-supplemented diets: a systematic review of the evidence. J Am Coll Surg 212(3):385–399

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Osland E, Hossain MB, Khan S, Memon MA (2014) Effect of timing of pharmaconutrition (immunonutrition) administration on outcomes of elective surgery for gastrointestinal malignancies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JPEN J Parenter Enter Nutr 38(1):53–69

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Cheng Y, Zhang J, Zhang L, Wu J, Zhan Z (2018) Enteral immunonutrition versus enteral nutrition for gastric cancer patients undergoing a total gastrectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Gastroenterol 18(1):11

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Song GM, Liu XL, Bian W, Wu J, Deng YH, Zhang H et al (2017) Systematic review with network meta-analysis: comparative efficacy of different enteral immunonutrition formulas in patients underwent gastrectomy. Oncotarget 8(14):23376–23388

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Song GM, Tian X, Zhang L, Ou YX, Yi LJ, Shuai T et al (2015) Immunonutrition support for patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal malignancy: preoperative, postoperative, or perioperative? A Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine (Baltimore) 94(29):e1225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Klek S, Kulig J, Sierzega M, Szybinski P, Szczepanek K, Kubisz A et al (2008) The impact of immunostimulating nutrition on infectious complications after upper gastrointestinal surgery: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Ann Surg 248(2):212–220

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Marano L, Porfidia R, Pezzella M, Grassia M, Petrillo M, Esposito G et al (2013) Clinical and immunological impact of early postoperative enteral immunonutrition after total gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients: a prospective randomized study. Ann Surg Oncol 20(12):3912–3918

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Ward-Boahen D, Wallace-Kazer M (2014) Improving surgical outcomes in pancreatic surgery with preoperative nutrition. J Adv Pract Oncol 5(2):100–106

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Hamza N, Darwish A, O’Reilly DA, Denton J, Sheen AJ, Chang D et al (2015) Perioperative enteral immunonutrition modulates systemic and mucosal immunity and the inflammatory response in patients with periampullary cancer scheduled for pancreaticoduodenectomy: a randomized clinical trial. Pancreas 44(1):41–52

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Aida T, Furukawa K, Suzuki D, Shimizu H, Yoshidome H, Ohtsuka M et al (2014) Preoperative immunonutrition decreases postoperative complications by modulating prostaglandin E2 production and T-cell differentiation in patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy. Surgery 155(1):124–133

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Suzuki D, Furukawa K, Aida T, Uno H, Miyauchi Y, Shimizu H et al (2014) Effects of immunonutrition on postoperative complication, stress responses, and cell-mediated immunity after pancreaticoduodenectomy: results from two randomized controlled studies. Clin Nutr 33:S137–S138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Probst P, Ohmann S, Klaiber U, Huttner FJ, Billeter AT, Ulrich A et al (2017) Meta-analysis of immunonutrition in major abdominal surgery. Br J Surg 104(12):1594–1608

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Ljungqvist O (2005) To fast or not to fast before surgical stress. Nutrition 21(7–8):885–886

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Soop M, Nygren J, Myrenfors P, Thorell A, Ljungqvist O (2001) Preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment attenuates immediate postoperative insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280(4):E576–E583

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Smith MD, McCall J, Plank L, Herbison GP, Soop M, Nygren J (2014) Preoperative carbohydrate treatment for enhancing recovery after elective surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD009161

    Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Wilson CJ, Mitchelson AJ, Tzeng TH, El-Othmani MM, Saleh J, Vasdev S et al (2016) Caring for the surgically anxious patient: a review of the interventions and a guide to optimizing surgical outcomes. Am J Surg 212(1):151–159

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Walker KJ, Smith AF (2009) Premedication for anxiety in adult day surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD002192

    Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Hurley RW, Cohen SP, Williams KA, Rowlingson AJ, Wu CL (2006) The analgesic effects of perioperative gabapentin on postoperative pain: a meta-analysis. Reg Anesth Pain Med 31(3):237–247

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Mishriky BM, Waldron NH, Habib AS (2015) Impact of pregabalin on acute and persistent postoperative pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth 114(1):10–31

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Agnelli G, Bolis G, Capussotti L, Scarpa RM, Tonelli F, Bonizzoni E et al (2006) A clinical outcome-based prospective study on venous thromboembolism after cancer surgery: the @RISTOS project. Ann Surg 243(1):89–95

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Lyman GH (2011) Venous thromboembolism in the patient with cancer: focus on burden of disease and benefits of thromboprophylaxis. Cancer 117(7):1334–1349

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Lyman GH, Khorana AA, Kuderer NM, Lee AY, Arcelus JI, Balaban EP et al (2013) Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and treatment in patients with cancer: american Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol 31(17):2189–2204

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Koch A, Bouges S, Ziegler S, Dinkel H, Daures JP, Victor N (1997) Low molecular weight heparin and unfractionated heparin in thrombosis prophylaxis after major surgical intervention: update of previous meta-analyses. Br J Surg 84(6):750–759

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Kakkos SK, Caprini JA, Geroulakos G, Nicolaides AN, Stansby GP, Reddy DJ (2008) Combined intermittent pneumatic leg compression and pharmacological prophylaxis for prevention of venous thromboembolism in high-risk patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD005258

    Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Hayashi H, Morikawa T, Yoshida H, Motoi F, Okada T, Nakagawa K et al (2014) Safety of postoperative thromboprophylaxis after major hepatobiliary-pancreatic surgery in Japanese patients. Surg Today 44(9):1660–1668

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Tzeng CW, Katz MH, Lee JE, Fleming JB, Pisters PW, Vauthey JN et al (2014) Predicting the risks of venous thromboembolism versus post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage: analysis of 13,771 NSQIP patients. HPB 16(4):373–383

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Horlocker TT, Vandermeuelen E, Kopp SL, Gogarten W, Leffert LR, Benzon HT (2018) Regional anesthesia in the patient receiving antithrombotic or thrombolytic therapy: american society of regional anesthesia and pain medicine evidence-based guidelines (fourth edition). Reg Anesth Pain Med 43(3):263–309

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Kent TS, Sachs TE, Callery MP, Vollmer CM Jr (2013) The burden of infection for elective pancreatic resections. Surgery 153(1):86–94

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Winter JM, Cameron JL, Campbell KA, Arnold MA, Chang DC, Coleman J et al (2006) 1423 pancreaticoduodenectomies for pancreatic cancer: a single-institution experience. J Gastrointest Surg 10(9):1199–1210 discussion 210-1

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Fernandez-del Castillo C, Morales-Oyarvide V, McGrath D, Wargo JA, Ferrone CR, Thayer SP et al (2012) Evolution of the Whipple procedure at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Surgery 152(3 Suppl 1):S56–S63

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Nanashima A, Abo T, Arai J, Oyama S, Mochinaga K, Matsumoto H et al (2014) Clinicopathological parameters associated with surgical site infections in patients who underwent pancreatic resection. Hepatogastroenterology 61(134):1739–1743

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Kirkland KB, Briggs JP, Trivette SL, Wilkinson WE, Sexton DJ (1999) The impact of surgical-site infections in the 1990s: attributable mortality, excess length of hospitalization, and extra costs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 20(11):725–730

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Valle JW, Palmer D, Jackson R, Cox T, Neoptolemos JP, Ghaneh P et al (2014) Optimal duration and timing of adjuvant chemotherapy after definitive surgery for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: ongoing lessons from the ESPAC-3 study. J Clin Oncol 32(6):504–512

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Merkow RP, Bilimoria KY, Tomlinson JS, Paruch JL, Fleming JB, Talamonti MS et al (2014) Postoperative complications reduce adjuvant chemotherapy use in resectable pancreatic cancer. Ann Surg 260(2):372–377

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Bratzler DW, Dellinger EP, Olsen KM, Perl TM, Auwaerter PG, Bolon MK et al (2013) Clinical practice guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. Am J Health Syst Pharm 70(3):195–283

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Leaper DJ, Edmiston CE Jr, Holy CE (2017) Meta-analysis of the potential economic impact following introduction of absorbable antimicrobial sutures. Br J Surg 104(2):e134–e144

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Fujita S, Saito N, Yamada T, Takii Y, Kondo K, Ohue M et al (2007) Randomized, multicenter trial of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective colorectal surgery: single dose vs 3 doses of a second-generation cephalosporin without metronidazole and oral antibiotics. Arch Surg 142(7):657–661

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Barreto SG, Singh MK, Sharma S, Chaudhary A (2015) Determinants of surgical site infections following pancreatoduodenectomy. World J Surg 39(10):2557–2563. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-015-3115-4

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Gavazzi F, Ridolfi C, Capretti G, Angiolini MR, Morelli P, Casari E et al (2016) Role of preoperative biliary stents, bile contamination and antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical site infections after pancreaticoduodenectomy. BMC Gastroenterol 16:43

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Sudo T, Murakami Y, Uemura K, Hashimoto Y, Kondo N, Nakagawa N et al (2014) Perioperative antibiotics covering bile contamination prevent abdominal infectious complications after pancreatoduodenectomy in patients with preoperative biliary drainage. World J Surg 38(11):2952–2959. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-014-2688-7

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Fong ZV, McMillan MT, Marchegiani G, Sahora K, Malleo G, De Pastena M et al (2016) Discordance between perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and wound infection cultures in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. JAMA Surg 151(5):432–439

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    van der Gaag NA, Rauws EA, van Eijck CH, Bruno MJ, van der Harst E, Kubben FJ et al (2010) Preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic head tumours: more complications. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 154(29):A1883

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Sudo T, Murakami Y, Uemura K, Hayashidani Y, Hashimoto Y, Ohge H et al (2007) Specific antibiotic prophylaxis based on bile cultures is required to prevent postoperative infectious complications in pancreatoduodenectomy patients who have undergone preoperative biliary drainage. World J Surg 31(11):2230–2235. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-007-9210-4

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Okamura K, Tanaka K, Miura T, Nakanishi Y, Noji T, Nakamura T et al (2017) Randomized controlled trial of perioperative antimicrobial therapy based on the results of preoperative bile cultures in patients undergoing biliary reconstruction. J Hepato-Biliary-Pancreat Sci 24(7):382–393

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Kondo K, Chijiiwa K, Ohuchida J, Kai M, Fujii Y, Otani K et al (2013) Selection of prophylactic antibiotics according to the microorganisms isolated from surgical site infections (SSIs) in a previous series of surgeries reduces SSI incidence after pancreaticoduodenectomy. J Hepato-Biliary-Pancreat Sci 20(3):286–293

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Fathi AH, Jackson T, Barati M, Eghbalieh B, Siegel KA, Siegel CT (2016) Extended perioperative antibiotic coverage in conjunction with intraoperative bile cultures decreases infectious complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy. HPB Surg 2016:3031749

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Sourrouille I, Gaujoux S, Lacave G, Bert F, Dokmak S, Belghiti J et al (2013) Five days of postoperative antimicrobial therapy decreases infectious complications following pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients at risk for bile contamination. HPB 15(6):473–480

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Donald GW, Sunjaya D, Lu X, Chen F, Clerkin B, Eibl G et al (2013) Perioperative antibiotics for surgical site infection in pancreaticoduodenectomy: does the SCIP-approved regimen provide adequate coverage? Surgery 154(2):190–196

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Tanaka K, Nakamura T, Imai S, Kushiya H, Miyasaka D, Nakanishi Y et al (2018) The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics reduces the incidence of surgical site infection after pancreatoduodenectomy. Surg Today 23:23

    Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Mohammed S, Evans C, VanBuren G, Hodges SE, Silberfein E, Artinyan A et al (2014) Treatment of bacteriobilia decreases wound infection rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. HPB 16(6):592–598

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Ban KA, Minei JP, Laronga C, Harbrecht BG, Jensen EH, Fry DE et al (2017) American College of Surgeons and Surgical Infection Society: surgical site infection guidelines, 2016 update. J Am Coll Surg 224(1):59–74

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Giske A, Nymo LS, Fuskevag OM, Amundsen S, Simonsen GS, Lassen K (2017) Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis prior to gastrointestinal surgery—is oral administration of doxycycline and metronidazole adequate? Infect Dis (Lond) 49(11–12):785–791

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Sidhwa F, Itani KM (2015) Skin preparation before surgery: options and evidence. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 16(1):14–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Maiwald M, Chan ES (2012) The forgotten role of alcohol: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy and perceived role of chlorhexidine in skin antisepsis. PLoS ONE 7(9):e44277

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    Dumville JC, McFarlane E, Edwards P, Lipp A, Holmes A, Liu Z (2015) Preoperative skin antiseptics for preventing surgical wound infections after clean surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD003949

    Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    Park HM, Han SS, Lee EC, Lee SD, Yoon HM, Eom BW et al (2017) Randomized clinical trial of preoperative skin antisepsis with chlorhexidine gluconate or povidone-iodine. Br J Surg 104(2):e145–e150

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    Webster J, Alghamdi A (2015) Use of plastic adhesive drapes during surgery for preventing surgical site infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:3

    Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    Cheng KP, Roslani AC, Sehha N, Kueh JH, Law CW, Chong HY et al (2012) ALEXIS O-Ring wound retractor vs conventional wound protection for the prevention of surgical site infections in colorectal resections(1). Colorectal Dis 14(6):e346–e351

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    Reid K, Pockney P, Draganic B, Smith SR (2010) Barrier wound protection decreases surgical site infection in open elective colorectal surgery: a randomized clinical trial. Dis Colon Rectum 53(10):1374–1380

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    Kang SI, Oh HK, Kim MH, Kim MJ, Kim DW, Kim HJ et al (2018) Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the clinical effectiveness of impervious plastic wound protectors in reducing surgical site infections in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Surgery 164(5):939–945

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  112. 112.

    Allegranzi B, Zayed B, Bischoff P, Kubilay NZ, de Jonge S, de Vries F et al (2016) New WHO recommendations on intraoperative and postoperative measures for surgical site infection prevention: an evidence-based global perspective. Lancet Infect Dis 16(12):e288–e303

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    Bruns H, Rahbari NN, Loffler T, Diener MK, Seiler CM, Glanemann M et al (2009) Perioperative management in distal pancreatectomy: results of a survey in 23 European participating centres of the DISPACT trial and a review of literature. Trials 10:58

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Block BM, Liu SS, Rowlingson AJ, Cowan AR, Cowan JA Jr, Wu CL (2003) Efficacy of postoperative epidural analgesia: a meta-analysis. JAMA 290(18):2455–2463

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Werawatganon T, Charuluxananan S (2013) WITHDRAWN: patient controlled intravenous opioid analgesia versus continuous epidural analgesia for pain after intra-abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD004088

    Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    Salicath JH, Yeoh EC, Bennett MH (2018) Epidural analgesia versus patient-controlled intravenous analgesia for pain following intra-abdominal surgery in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD010434

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Guay J, Nishimori M, Kopp S (2016) Epidural local anaesthetics versus opioid-based analgesic regimens for postoperative gastrointestinal paralysis, vomiting and pain after abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7:CD001893

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Popping DM, Elia N, Marret E, Remy C, Tramer MR (2008) Protective effects of epidural analgesia on pulmonary complications after abdominal and thoracic surgery: a meta-analysis. Arch Surg 143(10):990–999 discussion 1000

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    Schricker T, Lattermann R (2007) Strategies to attenuate the catabolic response to surgery and improve perioperative outcomes. Can J Anaesth 54(6):414–419

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    Carli F, Halliday D (1997) Continuous epidural blockade arrests the postoperative decrease in muscle protein fractional synthetic rate in surgical patients. Anesthesiology 86(5):1033–1040

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    Soop M, Carlson GL, Hopkinson J, Clarke S, Thorell A, Nygren J et al (2004) Randomized clinical trial of the effects of immediate enteral nutrition on metabolic responses to major colorectal surgery in an enhanced recovery protocol. Br J Surg 91(9):1138–1145

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    Pratt WB, Steinbrook RA, Maithel SK, Vanounou T, Callery MP, Vollmer CM Jr (2008) Epidural analgesia for pancreatoduodenectomy: a critical appraisal. J Gastrointest Surg 12(7):1207–1220

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    Cook TM, Counsell D, Wildsmith JA, Royal College of Anaesthetists Third National Audit P (2009) Major complications of central neuraxial block: report on the Third National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists. Br J Anaesth 102(2):179–190

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    Day AR, Smith RV, Scott MJ, Fawcett WJ, Rockall TA (2015) Randomized clinical trial investigating the stress response from two different methods of analgesia after laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Br J Surg 102(12):1473–1479

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    McNicol ED, Ferguson MC, Haroutounian S, Carr DB, Schumann R (2016) Single dose intravenous paracetamol or intravenous propacetamol for postoperative pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5:CD007126

    Google Scholar 

  126. 126.

    Teerawattananon C, Tantayakom P, Suwanawiboon B, Katchamart W (2017) Risk of perioperative bleeding related to highly selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 46(4):520–528

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  127. 127.

    Brummett CM, Waljee JF, Goesling J, Moser S, Lin P, Englesbe MJ et al (2017) New persistent opioid use after minor and major surgical procedures in US adults. JAMA Surg 152(6):e170504

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  128. 128.

    Amini A, Patanwala AE, Maegawa FB, Skrepnek GH, Jie T, Gruessner RW et al (2012) Effect of epidural analgesia on postoperative complications following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Am J Surg 204(6):1000–1004 discussion 4–6

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    Klotz R, Hofer S, Schellhaass A, Dorr-Harim C, Tenckhoff S, Bruckner T et al (2016) Intravenous versus epidural analgesia to reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal complications after elective pancreatoduodenectomy (the PAKMAN trial, DRKS 00007784): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 17:194

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    Weibel S, Jelting Y, Pace NL, Helf A, Eberhart LH, Hahnenkamp K et al (2018) Continuous intravenous perioperative lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain and recovery in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6:CD009642

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    Dunn LK, Durieux ME (2017) Perioperative use of intravenous lidocaine. Anesthesiology 126(4):729–737

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    Khan JS, Yousuf M, Victor JC, Sharma A, Siddiqui N (2016) An estimation for an appropriate end time for an intraoperative intravenous lidocaine infusion in bowel surgery: a comparative meta-analysis. J Clin Anesth 28:95–104

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  133. 133.

    Kranke P, Jokinen J, Pace NL, Schnabel A, Hollmann MW, Hahnenkamp K et al (2015) Continuous intravenous perioperative lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain and recovery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7:CD009642

    Google Scholar 

  134. 134.

    Fragen RJ, Fitzgerald PC (1999) Effect of dexmedetomidine on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in adults age 55 to 70 years. J Clin Anesth 11(6):466–470

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  135. 135.

    Le Bot A, Michelet D, Hilly J, Maesani M, Dilly MP, Brasher C et al (2015) Efficacy of intraoperative dexmedetomidine compared with placebo for surgery in adults: a meta-analysis of published studies. Minerva Anestesiol 81(10):1105–1117

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  136. 136.

    Bellon M, Le Bot A, Michelet D, Hilly J, Maesani M, Brasher C et al (2016) Efficacy of intraoperative dexmedetomidine compared with placebo for postoperative pain management: a meta-analysis of published studies. Pain Ther 5(1):63–80

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  137. 137.

    Elia N, Tramer MR (2005) Ketamine and postoperative pain–a quantitative systematic review of randomised trials. Pain 113(1–2):61–70

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  138. 138.

    Laskowski K, Stirling A, McKay WP, Lim HJ (2011) A systematic review of intravenous ketamine for postoperative analgesia. Can J Anaesth 58(10):911–923

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  139. 139.

    Ventham NT, Hughes M, O’Neill S, Johns N, Brady RR, Wigmore SJ (2013) Systematic review and meta-analysis of continuous local anaesthetic wound infiltration versus epidural analgesia for postoperative pain following abdominal surgery. Br J Surg 100(10):1280–1289

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  140. 140.

    Mungroop TH, Bond MJ, Lirk P, Busch OR, Hollmann MW, Veelo DP et al (2019) Preperitoneal or subcutaneous wound catheters as alternative for epidural analgesia in abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Surg 269(2):252–260

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  141. 141.

    Mungroop TH, Veelo DP, Busch OR, van Dieren S, van Gulik TM, Karsten TM et al (2016) Continuous wound infiltration versus epidural analgesia after hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery (POP-UP): a randomised controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 1(2):105–113

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  142. 142.

    Siddiqui MR, Sajid MS, Uncles DR, Cheek L, Baig MK (2011) A meta-analysis on the clinical effectiveness of transversus abdominis plane block. J Clin Anesth 23(1):7–14

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  143. 143.

    Roberts SM, Bezinover DS, Janicki PK (2012) Reappraisal of the role of dolasetron in prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with surgery or chemotherapy. Cancer Manag Res 4:67–73

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  144. 144.

    Gan TJ, Diemunsch P, Habib AS, Kovac A, Kranke P, Meyer TA et al (2014) Consensus guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 118(1):85–113

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  145. 145.

    Apfel CC, Heidrich FM, Jukar-Rao S, Jalota L, Hornuss C, Whelan RP et al (2012) Evidence-based analysis of risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth 109(5):742–753

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  146. 146.

    Carmichael JC, Keller DS, Baldini G, Bordeianou L, Weiss E, Lee L et al (2017) Clinical practice guidelines for enhanced recovery after colon and rectal surgery from the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons and Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons. Dis Colon Rectum 60(8):761–784

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  147. 147.

    Balzano G, Zerbi A, Braga M, Rocchetti S, Beneduce AA, Di Carlo V (2008) Fast-track recovery programme after pancreaticoduodenectomy reduces delayed gastric emptying. Br J Surg 95(11):1387–1393

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  148. 148.

    Son J, Yoon H (2018) Factors affecting postoperative nausea and vomiting in surgical patients. J Perianesth Nurs 33(4):461–470

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  149. 149.

    Choi YS, Sohn HM, Do SH, Min KT, Woo JH, Baik HJ (2018) Comparison of ramosetron and ondansetron for the treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic surgery: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded multicenter trial. Ther Clin Risk Manag 14:601–606

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  150. 150.

    Gupta R, Srivastava S, Dhiraaj S, Chovatiya PP (2018) Minimum effective dose of dexamethasone in combination with midazolam as prophylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anesth Essays Res 12(2):396–401

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  151. 151.

    Maitra S, Som A, Baidya DK, Bhattacharjee S (2016) Comparison of ondansetron and dexamethasone for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiol Res Pract 2016:7089454

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  152. 152.

    Som A, Bhattacharjee S, Maitra S, Arora MK, Baidya DK (2016) Combination of 5-HT3 antagonist and dexamethasone is superior to 5-HT3 antagonist alone for PONV prophylaxis after laparoscopic surgeries: a meta-analysis. Anesth Analg 123(6):1418–1426

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  153. 153.

    Roberts GW, Bekker TB, Carlsen HH, Moffatt CH, Slattery PJ, McClure AF (2005) Postoperative nausea and vomiting are strongly influenced by postoperative opioid use in a dose-related manner. Anesth Analg 101(5):1343–1348

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  154. 154.

    Choi JB, Shim YH, Lee YW, Lee JS, Choi JR, Chang CH (2014) Incidence and risk factors of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients with fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia and single antiemetic prophylaxis. Yonsei Med J 55(5):1430–1435

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  155. 155.

    Heuser F, Schulz C, Saglam M, Ramaioli C, Heuberger M, Wagner KJ et al (2017) Preventing opioid-induced nausea and vomiting: rest your head and close your eyes? PLoS ONE 12(3):e0173925

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  156. 156.

    De Pietri L, Montalti R, Begliomini B (2014) Anaesthetic perioperative management of patients with pancreatic cancer. World J Gastroenterol 20(9):2304–2320

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  157. 157.

    Torossian A (2008) Thermal management during anaesthesia and thermoregulation standards for the prevention of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 22(4):659–668

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  158. 158.

    Wong PF, Kumar S, Bohra A, Whetter D, Leaper DJ (2007) Randomized clinical trial of perioperative systemic warming in major elective abdominal surgery. Br J Surg 94(4):421–426

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  159. 159.

    Kurz A, Sessler DI, Lenhardt R (1996) Perioperative normothermia to reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infection and shorten hospitalization. Study of wound infection and temperature group. N Engl J Med 334(19):1209–1215

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  160. 160.

    Frank SM, Fleisher LA, Breslow MJ, Higgins MS, Olson KF, Kelly S et al (1997) Perioperative maintenance of normothermia reduces the incidence of morbid cardiac events. A randomized clinical trial. JAMA 277(14):1127–1134

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  161. 161.

    Hasegawa K, Negishi C, Nakagawa F, Ozaki M (2012) Core temperatures during major abdominal surgery in patients warmed with new circulating-water garment, forced-air warming, or carbon-fiber resistive-heating system. J Anesth 26(2):168–173

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  162. 162.

    Zhao J, Luo AL, Xu L, Huang YG (2005) Forced-air warming and fluid warming minimize core hypothermia during abdominal surgery. Chin Med Sci J 20(4):261–264

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  163. 163.

    Zeba S, Surbatovic M, Marjanovic M, Jevdjic J, Hajdukovic Z, Karkalic R et al (2016) Efficacy of external warming in attenuation of hypothermia in surgical patients. Vojnosanit Pregl 73(6):566–571

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  164. 164.

    Scott EM, Buckland R (2006) A systematic review of intraoperative warming to prevent postoperative complications. AORN J 83(5):1090–104, 107–13

  165. 165.

    Rajagopalan S, Mascha E, Na J, Sessler DI (2008) The effects of mild perioperative hypothermia on blood loss and transfusion requirement. Anesthesiology 108(1):71–77

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  166. 166.

    Pu Y, Cen G, Sun J, Gong J, Zhang Y, Zhang M et al (2014) Warming with an underbody warming system reduces intraoperative hypothermia in patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgery: a randomized controlled study. Int J Nurs Stud 51(2):181–189

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  167. 167.

    Lau A, Lowlaavar N, Cooke EM, West N, German A, Morse DJ et al (2018) Effect of preoperative warming on intraoperative hypothermia: a randomized-controlled trial. Can J Anaesth 65:1029–1040

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  168. 168.

    Connelly L, Cramer E, DeMott Q, Piperno J, Coyne B, Winfield C et al (2017) The optimal time and method for surgical prewarming: a comprehensive review of the literature. J Perianesth Nurs 32(3):199–209

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  169. 169.

    Taguchi A, Ratnaraj J, Kabon B, Sharma N, Lenhardt R, Sessler DI et al (2004) Effects of a circulating-water garment and forced-air warming on body heat content and core temperature. Anesthesiology 100(5):1058–1064

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  170. 170.

    Perez-Protto S, Sessler DI, Reynolds LF, Bakri MH, Mascha E, Cywinski J et al (2010) Circulating-water garment or the combination of a circulating-water mattress and forced-air cover to maintain core temperature during major upper-abdominal surgery. Br J Anaesth 105(4):466–470

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  171. 171.

    Ljungqvist O (2010) Insulin resistance and outcomes in surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95(9):4217–4219

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  172. 172.

    Ljungqvist O, Jonathan E (2012) Rhoads lecture 2011: insulin resistance and enhanced recovery after surgery. JPEN J Parenter Enter Nutr 36(4):389–398

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  173. 173.

    Eshuis WJ, Hermanides J, van Dalen JW, van Samkar G, Busch OR, van Gulik TM et al (2011) Early postoperative hyperglycemia is associated with postoperative complications after pancreatoduodenectomy. Ann Surg 253(4):739–744

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  174. 174.

    Gustafsson UO, Thorell A, Soop M, Ljungqvist O, Nygren J (2009) Haemoglobin A1c as a predictor of postoperative hyperglycaemia and complications after major colorectal surgery. Br J Surg 96(11):1358–1364

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  175. 175.

    Jones CE, Graham LA, Morris MS, Richman JS, Hollis RH, Wahl TS et al (2017) Association between preoperative hemoglobin A1c levels, postoperative hyperglycemia, and readmissions following gastrointestinal surgery. JAMA Surg 152(11):1031–1038

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  176. 176.

    van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, Verwaest C, Bruyninckx F, Schetz M et al (2001) Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 345(19):1359–1367

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  177. 177.

    Takesue Y, Tsuchida T (2017) Strict glycemic control to prevent surgical site infections in gastroenterological surgery. Ann Gastroenterol Surg 1(1):52–59

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  178. 178.

    Okabayashi T, Shima Y, Sumiyoshi T, Kozuki A, Tokumaru T, Iiyama T et al (2014) Intensive versus intermediate glucose control in surgical intensive care unit patients. Diabetes Care 37(6):1516–1524

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  179. 179.

    Feldheiser A, Aziz O, Baldini G, Cox BP, Fearon KC, Feldman LS et al (2016) Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) for gastrointestinal surgery, part 2: consensus statement for anaesthesia practice. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 60(3):289–334

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  180. 180.

    Investigators N-SS, Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, Blair D, Foster D et al (2009) Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 360(13):1283–1297

    Article  Google Scholar 

  181. 181.

    Investigators N-SS, Finfer S, Liu B, Chittock DR, Norton R, Myburgh JA et al (2012) Hypoglycemia and risk of death in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 367(12):1108–1118

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  182. 182.

    Griesdale DE, de Souza RJ, van Dam RM, Heyland DK, Cook DJ, Malhotra A et al (2009) Intensive insulin therapy and mortality among critically ill patients: a meta-analysis including NICE-SUGAR study data. CMAJ 180(8):821–827

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  183. 183.

    Okabayashi T, Nishimori I, Yamashita K, Sugimoto T, Maeda H, Yatabe T et al (2009) Continuous postoperative blood glucose monitoring and control by artificial pancreas in patients having pancreatic resection: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Arch Surg 144(10):933–937

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  184. 184.

    Wei ZW, Li JL, Li ZS, Hao YT, He YL, Chen W et al (2014) Systematic review of nasogastric or nasojejunal decompression after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol 40(12):1763–1770

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  185. 185.

    Wang D, Li T, Yu J, Hu Y, Liu H, Li G (2015) Is nasogastric or nasojejunal decompression necessary following gastrectomy for gastric cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. J Gastrointest Surg 19(1):195–204

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  186. 186.

    Ding J, Liao G, Xia Y, Zhang ZM, Pan Y, Liu S et al (2013) The necessity of indwelling gastrointestinal decompression after gastrectomy: a meta-analysis. J Surg Res 179(1):e71–e81

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  187. 187.

    Vermeulen H, Storm-Versloot MN, Busch OR, Ubbink DT (2006) Nasogastric intubation after abdominal surgery: a meta-analysis of recent literature. Arch Surg 141(3):307–314

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  188. 188.

    Rao W, Zhang X, Zhang J, Yan R, Hu Z, Wang Q (2011) The role of nasogastric tube in decompression after elective colon and rectum surgery: a meta-analysis. Int J Colorectal Dis 26(4):423–429

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  189. 189.

    Braga M, Pecorelli N, Ariotti R, Capretti G, Greco M, Balzano G et al (2014) Enhanced recovery after surgery pathway in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. World J Surg 38(11):2960–2966. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-014-2653-5

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  190. 190.

    Zouros E, Liakakos T, MacHairas A, Patapis P, Agalianos C, Dervenis C (2016) Improvement of gastric emptying by enhanced recovery after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 15(2):198–208

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  191. 191.

    Roland CL, Mansour JC, Schwarz RE (2012) Routine nasogastric decompression is unnecessary after pancreatic resections. Arch Surg 147(3):287–289

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  192. 192.

    Fisher WE, Hodges SE, Cruz G, Artinyan A, Silberfein EJ, Ahern CH et al (2011) Routine nasogastric suction may be unnecessary after a pancreatic resection. HPB 13(11):792–796

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  193. 193.

    Choi YY, Kim J, Seo D, Choi D, Kim MJ, Kim JH et al (2011) Is routine nasogastric tube insertion necessary in pancreaticoduodenectomy? J Korean Surg Soc 81(4):257–262

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  194. 194.

    Kwon H, Kim S, Chun J, Hwang Y, Yun Y (2012) Is routine insertion of nasogastric tube really necessary in elective pancreatoduodenectomy?: a prospective randomized controlled trial. HPB 14:341

    Article  Google Scholar 

  195. 195.

    Kunstman JW, Klemen ND, Fonseca AL, Araya DL, Salem RR (2013) Nasogastric drainage may be unnecessary after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a comparison of routine vs selective decompression. J Am Coll Surg 217(3):481–488

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  196. 196.

    Park JS, Kim JY, Kim JK, Yoon DS (2016) Should gastric decompression be a routine procedure in patients who undergo pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy? World J Surg 40(11):2766–2770. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-016-3604-0

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  197. 197.

    Eng OS, Goswami J, Moore D, Chen C, Gannon CJ, August DA et al (2013) Intraoperative fluid administration is associated with perioperative outcomes in pancreaticoduodenectomy: a single center retrospective analysis. J Surg Oncol 108(4):242–247

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  198. 198.

    Wang S, Wang X, Dai H, Han J, Li N, Li J (2014) The effect of intraoperative fluid volume administration on pancreatic fistulas after pancreaticoduodenectomy. J Investig Surg 27(2):88–94

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  199. 199.

    Weinberg L, Wong D, Karalapillai D, Pearce B, Tan CO, Tay S et al (2014) The impact of fluid intervention on complications and length of hospital stay after pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple’s procedure). BMC Anesthesiol 14:35

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  200. 200.

    Wright GP, Koehler TJ, Davis AT, Chung MH (2014) The drowning whipple: perioperative fluid balance and outcomes following pancreaticoduodenectomy. J Surg Oncol 110(4):407–411

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  201. 201.

    Behman R, Hanna S, Coburn N, Law C, Cyr DP, Truong J et al (2015) Impact of fluid resuscitation on major adverse events following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Am J Surg 210(5):896–903

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  202. 202.

    Healy MA, McCahill LE, Chung M, Berri R, Ito H, Obi SH et al (2016) Intraoperative fluid resuscitation strategies in pancreatectomy: results from 38 hospitals in Michigan. Ann Surg Oncol 23(9):3047–3055

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  203. 203.

    Kulemann B, Fritz M, Glatz T, Marjanovic G, Sick O, Hopt UT et al (2017) Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy are associated with higher amounts of intra- and postoperative fluid therapy: a single center retrospective cohort study. Ann Med Surg 16:23–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  204. 204.

    Bruns H, Kortendieck V, Raab HR, Antolovic D (2016) Intraoperative fluid excess is a risk factor for pancreatic fistula after partial pancreaticoduodenectomy. HPB Surg 2016:1601340

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  205. 205.

    Han I, Kim H, Lee J, Oh M, Lee S, Choi Y et al (2017) Excessive intraoperative fluid volume administration is associated with pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy: a retrospective multicenter study. J Hepato-Biliary-Pancreat Sci 24:A168

    Google Scholar 

  206. 206.

    Winer LK, Dhar VK, Wima K, Lee TC, Morris MC, Shah SA et al (2018) Perioperative net fluid balance predicts pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy. J Gastrointest Surg 04:04

    Google Scholar 

  207. 207.

    Fischer M, Matsuo K, Gonen M, Grant F, Dematteo RP, D’Angelica MI et al (2010) Relationship between intraoperative fluid administration and perioperative outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy: results of a prospective randomized trial of acute normovolemic hemodilution compared with standard intraoperative management. Ann Surg 252(6):952–958

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  208. 208.

    Lavu H, Sell NM, Carter TI, Winter JM, Maguire DP, Gratch DM et al (2014) The HYSLAR trial: a prospective randomized controlled trial of the use of a restrictive fluid regimen with 3% hypertonic saline versus lactated Ringers in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Ann Surg 260(3):445–453 discussion 53-5

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  209. 209.

    van Samkar G, Eshuis WJ, Bennink RJ, van Gulik TM, Dijkgraaf MG, Preckel B et al (2015) Intraoperative fluid restriction in pancreatic surgery: a double blinded randomised controlled trial. PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] 10(10):e0140294

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  210. 210.

    Chen BP, Chen M, Bennett S, Lemon K, Bertens KA, Balaa FK et al (2018) Systematic review and meta-analysis of restrictive perioperative fluid management in pancreaticoduodenectomy. World J Surg 20:20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-018-4545-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  211. 211.

    Grant F, Brennan MF, Allen PJ, DeMatteo RP, Kingham TP, D’Angelica M et al (2016) Prospective randomized controlled trial of liberal vs restricted perioperative fluid management in patients undergoing pancreatectomy. Ann Surg 264(4):591–598

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  212. 212.

    Weinberg L, Ianno D, Churilov L, Chao I, Scurrah N, Rachbuch C et al (2017) Restrictive intraoperative fluid optimisation algorithm improves outcomes in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy: a prospective multicentre randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE 12(9):e0183313

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  213. 213.

    Rollins KE, Lobo DN (2016) Intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy in elective major abdominal surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Surg 263(3):465–476

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  214. 214.

    Conlon KC, Labow D, Leung D, Smith A, Jarnagin W, Coit DG et al (2001) Prospective randomized clinical trial of the value of intraperitoneal drainage after pancreatic resection. Ann Surg 234(4):487–493 discussion 93-4

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  215. 215.

    Witzigmann H, Diener MK, Kienkotter S, Rossion I, Bruckner T, Barbel W et al (2016) No need for routine drainage after pancreatic head resection: the dual-center, randomized, controlled PANDRA trial (ISRCTN04937707). Ann Surg 264(3):528–537

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  216. 216.

    Van Buren G 2nd, Bloomston M, Hughes SJ, Winter J, Behrman SW, Zyromski NJ et al (2014) A randomized prospective multicenter trial of pancreaticoduodenectomy with and without routine intraperitoneal drainage. Ann Surg 259(4):605–612

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  217. 217.

    Callery MP, Pratt WB, Kent TS, Chaikof EL, Vollmer CM Jr (2013) A prospectively validated clinical risk score accurately predicts pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy. J Am Coll Surg 216(1):1–14

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  218. 218.

    McMillan MT, Fisher WE, Van Buren G 2nd, McElhany A, Bloomston M, Hughes SJ et al (2015) The value of drains as a fistula mitigation strategy for pancreatoduodenectomy: something for everyone? Results of a randomized prospective multi-institutional study. J Gastrointest Surg 19(1):21–30 discussion-1

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  219. 219.

    Bassi C, Molinari E, Malleo G, Crippa S, Butturini G, Salvia R et al (2010) Early versus late drain removal after standard pancreatic resections: results of a prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg 252(2):207–214

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  220. 220.

    Ven Fong Z, Correa-Gallego C, Ferrone CR, Veillette GR, Warshaw AL, Lillemoe KD et al (2015) Early drain removal—the middle ground between the drain versus no drain debate in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy: a prospective validation study. Ann Surg 262(2):378–383

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  221. 221.

    Maggino L, Malleo G, Bassi C, Allegrini V, Beane JD, Beckman RM et al (2017) Identification of an optimal cut-off for drain fluid amylase on postoperative day 1 for predicting clinically relevant fistula after distal pancreatectomy: a multi-institutional analysis and external validation. Ann Surg 21:21

    Google Scholar 

  222. 222.

    Beane JD, House MG, Ceppa EP, Dolejs SC, Pitt HA (2017) Variation in drain management after pancreatoduodenectomy: early versus delayed removal. Ann Surg 23:23

    Google Scholar 

  223. 223.

    McMillan MT, Malleo G, Bassi C, Allegrini V, Casetti L, Drebin JA et al (2017) Multicenter, prospective trial of selective drain management for pancreatoduodenectomy using risk stratification. Ann Surg 265(6):1209–1218

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  224. 224.

    Allen PJ, Gönen M, Brennan MF, Bucknor AA, Robinson LM, Pappas MM et al (2014) Pasireotide for postoperative pancreatic fistula. N Engl J Med 370(21):2014–2022

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  225. 225.

    El Nakeeb A, ElGawalby A, Ali MA, Shehta A, Hamed H, El Refea M et al (2018) Efficacy of octreotide in the prevention of complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with soft pancreas and non-dilated pancreatic duct: a prospective randomized trial. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 17(1):59–63

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  226. 226.

    Dominguez-Rosado I, Fields RC, Woolsey CA, Williams G, Horwedel TA, Rose JB et al (2018) Prospective evaluation of pasireotide in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy: the Washington University experience. J Am Coll Surg 226(2):147-54.e1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  227. 227.

    Kurumboor P, Palaniswami KN, Pramil K, George D, Ponnambathayil S, Varma D et al (2015) Octreotide Does not prevent pancreatic fistula following pancreatoduodenectomy in patients with soft pancreas and non-dilated duct: a prospective randomized controlled trial. J Gastrointest Surg 19(11):2038–2044

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  228. 228.

    Fernandez-Cruz L, Jimenez Chavarria E, Taura P, Closa D, Boado MA, Ferrer J (2013) Prospective randomized trial of the effect of octreotide on pancreatic juice output after pancreaticoduodenectomy in relation to histological diagnosis, duct size and leakage. HPB 15(5):392–399

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  229. 229.

    Graham J, Johnson L, Haddad N, Al-Kawas F, Carroll J, Jha R et al (2011) A prospective study of prophylactic long-acting octreotide in high-risk patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Am J Surg 201(4):481–485

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  230. 230.

    Kollmar O, Moussavian MR, Richter S, de Roi P, Maurer CA, Schilling MK (2008) Prophylactic octreotide and delayed gastric emptying after pancreaticoduodenectomy: results of a prospective randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Surg Oncol 34(8):868–875

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  231. 231.

    Ramos-De la Medina A, Sarr MG (2006) Somatostatin analogues in the prevention of pancreas-related complications after pancreatic resection. J Hepato-Biliary-Pancreat Surg 13(3):190–193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  232. 232.

    Hesse UJ, De Decker C, Houtmeyers P, Demetter P, Ceelen W, Pattyn P et al (2005) Prospectively randomized trial using perioperative low dose octreotide to prevent organ related and general complications following pancreatic surgery and pancreatico-jejunostomy. Acta Chir Belg 105(4):383–387

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  233. 233.

    Shan YS, Sy ED, Tsai ML, Tang LY, Li PS, Lin PW (2005) Effects of somatostatin prophylaxis after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: increased delayed gastric emptying and reduced plasma motilin. World J Surg 29(10):1319–1324. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-005-7943-5

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  234. 234.

    Shan YS, Sy ED, Lin PW (2003) Role of somatostatin in the prevention of pancreatic stump-related morbidity following elective pancreaticoduodenectomy in high-risk patients and elimination of surgeon-related factors: prospective, randomized, controlled trial. World J Surg 27(6):709–714. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-003-6693-5

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  235. 235.

    Yeo CJ, Cameron JL, Lillemoe KD, Sauter PK, Coleman J, Sohn TA et al (2000) Does prophylactic octreotide decrease the rates of pancreatic fistula and other complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy? Results of a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial. Ann Surg 232(3):419–429

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  236. 236.

    Koti R, Gurusamy K, Fusai G, Davidson B (2010) Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of somatostatin analogues for pancreatic surgery: a Cochrane review (Structured abstract). HPB 12(3):155–165

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  237. 237.

    Søreide K, Labori KJ (2016) Risk factors and preventive strategies for post-operative pancreatic fistula after pancreatic surgery: a comprehensive review. Scand J Gastroenterol 51(10):1147–1154

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  238. 238.

    Hashimoto D, Chikamoto A, Ohmuraya M, Hirota M, Baba H (2014) Pancreaticodigestive anastomosis and the postoperative management strategies to prevent postoperative pancreatic fistula formation after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Surg Today 44(7):1207–1213

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  239. 239.

    Drymousis P, Pai M, Spalding D, Jiao LR, Habib N, Zacharakis E (2013) Is octreotide beneficial in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy? Best evidence topic (BET). Int J Surg 11(9):779–782

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  240. 240.

    Čečka F, Jon B, Šubrt Z, Ferko A (2012) The effect of somatostatin and its analogs in the prevention of pancreatic fistula after elective pancreatic surgery. Eur Surg Acta Chir Austriaca 44(2):99–108

    Article  Google Scholar 

  241. 241.

    Lai EC, Lau SH, Lau WY (2009) Measures to prevent pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy: a comprehensive review. Arch Surg 144(11):1074–1080

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  242. 242.

    Poon RT, Fan ST (2008) Decreasing the pancreatic leak rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Adv Surg 42:33–48

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  243. 243.

    Poon RT, Lo SH, Fong D, Fan ST, Wong J (2002) Prevention of pancreatic anastomotic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Am J Surg 183(1):42–52

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  244. 244.

    Andrén-Sandberg Å, Flati G, Büchler M (2000) The role of octreotide in preventing complications after pancreatoduodenectomy for cancer. HPB 2(3):299–312

    Article  Google Scholar 

  245. 245.

    Li-Ling J, Irving M (2001) Somatostatin and octreotide in the prevention of postoperative pancreatic complications and the treatment of enterocutaneous pancreatic fistulas: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Br J Surg 88(2):190–199

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  246. 246.

    Gurusamy KS, Koti R, Fusai G, Davidson BR (2012) Somatostatin analogues for pancreatic surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6:CD008370

    Google Scholar 

  247. 247.

    Gurusamy KS, Koti R, Fusai G, Davidson BR (2013) Somatostatin analogues for pancreatic surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD008370

    Google Scholar 

  248. 248.

    McPhail MJ, Abu-Hilal M, Johnson CD (2006) A meta-analysis comparing suprapubic and transurethral catheterization for bladder drainage after abdominal surgery. Br J Surg 93(9):1038–1044

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  249. 249.

    Beane JD, House MG, Miller A, Nakeeb A, Schmidt CM, Zyromski NJ et al (2014) Optimal management of delayed gastric emptying after pancreatectomy: an analysis of 1089 patients. Surgery 156(4):939–946

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  250. 250.

    El Nakeeb A, Askr W, Mahdy Y, Elgawalby A, El Sorogy M, Abu Zeied M et al (2015) Delayed gastric emptying after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Risk factors, predictors of severity and outcome. A single center experience of 588 cases. J Gastrointest Surg 19(6):1093–1100

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  251. 251.

    Liu QY, Li L, Xia HT, Zhang WZ, Cai SW, Lu SC (2016) Risk factors of delayed gastric emptying following pancreaticoduodenectomy. ANZ J Surg 86(1–2):69–73

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  252. 252.

    Sato G, Ishizaki Y, Yoshimoto J, Sugo H, Imamura H, Kawasaki S (2014) Factors influencing clinically significant delayed gastric emptying after subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. World J Surg 38(4):968–975. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-013-2288-y.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  253. 253.

    Wente MN, Bassi C, Dervenis C, Fingerhut A, Gouma DJ, Izbicki JR et al (2007) Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after pancreatic surgery: a suggested definition by the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS). Surgery 142(5):761–768

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  254. 254.

    Parmar AD, Sheffield KM, Vargas GM, Pitt HA, Kilbane EM, Hall BL et al (2013) Factors associated with delayed gastric emptying after pancreaticoduodenectomy. HPB 15(10):763–772

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  255. 255.

    Qu H, Sun GR, Zhou SQ, He QS (2013) Clinical risk factors of delayed gastric emptying in patients after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Surg Oncol 39(3):213–223

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  256. 256.

    Glowka TR, Webler M, Matthaei H, Schafer N, Schmitz V, Kalff JC et al (2017) Delayed gastric emptying following pancreatoduodenectomy with alimentary reconstruction according to Roux-en-Y or Billroth-II. BMC Surg 17(1):24

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  257. 257.

    Huttner FJ, Klotz R, Ulrich A, Buchler MW, Diener MK (2016) Antecolic versus retrocolic reconstruction after partial pancreaticoduodenectomy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9:CD011862

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  258. 258.

    Tamandl D, Sahora K, Prucker J, Schmid R, Holst JJ, Miholic J et al (2014) Impact of the reconstruction method on delayed gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: a prospective randomized study. World J Surg 38(2):465–475. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-013-2274-4

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  259. 259.

    Lei P, Fang J, Huang Y, Zheng Z, Wei B, Wei H (2014) Pancreaticogastrostomy or pancreaticojejunostomy? Methods of digestive continuity reconstruction after pancreaticodudenectomy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Surg 12(12):1444–1449

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  260. 260.

    Ma S, Li Q, Dai W, Pan F (2014) Pancreaticogastrostomy versus pancreaticojejunostomy. J Surg Res 192(1):68–75

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  261. 261.

    Hackert T, Probst P, Knebel P, Doerr-Harim C, Bruckner T, Klaiber U et al (2018) Pylorus resection does not reduce delayed gastric emptying after partial pancreatoduodenectomy: a blinded randomized controlled Trial (PROPP Study, DRKS00004191). Ann Surg 267(6):1021–1027

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  262. 262.

    Lei P, Wei B, Guo W, Wei H (2014) Minimally invasive surgical approach compared with open pancreaticoduodenectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis on the feasibility and safety. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutaneous Tech 24(4):296–305

    Article  Google Scholar 

  263. 263.

    Mohammed S, Van Buren Ii G, McElhany A, Silberfein EJ, Fisher WE (2017) Delayed gastric emptying following pancreaticoduodenectomy: incidence, risk factors, and healthcare utilization. World J Gastrointest Surg 9(3):73–81

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  264. 264.

    Futagawa Y, Kanehira M, Furukawa K, Kitamura H, Yoshida S, Usuba T et al (2017) Impact of delayed gastric emptying after pancreaticoduodenectomy on survival. J Hepato-Biliary-Pancreat Sci 24(8):466–474

    Article  Google Scholar 

  265. 265.

    Liu C, Du Z, Lou C, Wu C, Yuan Q, Wang J et al (2011) Enteral nutrition is superior to total parenteral nutrition for pancreatic cancer patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 20(2):154–160

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  266. 266.

    Liu Q, Jiang H, Xu D, Jin J (2017) Effect of gum chewing on ameliorating ileus following colorectal surgery: a meta-analysis of 18 randomized controlled trials. Int J Surg 47:107–115

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  267. 267.

    Li S, Liu Y, Peng Q, Xie L, Wang J, Qin X (2013) Chewing gum reduces postoperative ileus following abdominal surgery: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 28(7):1122–1132

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  268. 268.

    Andersson T, Bjersa K, Falk K, Olsen MF (2015) Effects of chewing gum against postoperative ileus after pancreaticoduodenectomy–a randomized controlled trial. BMC Res Notes 8:37

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  269. 269.

    Lee CH, Kim H, Han IW, Kim SM, Kwak BS, Baik YH et al (2016) Effect of polylactic film (Surgi-Wrap) on preventing postoperative ileus after major hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery. Ann Hepato-Biliary-Pancreat Surg 20(4):191–196

    Article  Google Scholar 

  270. 270.

    Kumar S, Wong PF, Leaper DJ (2009) Intra-peritoneal prophylactic agents for preventing adhesions and adhesive intestinal obstruction after non-gynaecological abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:CD005080

    Google Scholar 

  271. 271.

    Xu LL, Zhou XQ, Yi PS, Zhang M, Li J, Xu MQ (2016) Alvimopan combined with enhanced recovery strategy for managing postoperative ileus after open abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Surg Res 203(1):211–221

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  272. 272.

    Drake TM, Ward AE (2016) Pharmacological management to prevent ileus in major abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gastrointest Surg 20(6):1253–1264

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  273. 273.

    Vaughan-Shaw PG, Fecher IC, Harris S, Knight JS (2012) A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of the opioid receptor antagonist alvimopan in reducing hospital length of stay and time to GI recovery in patients enrolled in a standardized accelerated recovery program after abdominal surgery. Dis Colon Rectum 55(5):611–620

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  274. 274.

    Earnshaw SR, Kauf TL, McDade C, Potashman MH, Pauyo C, Reese ES et al (2015) Economic impact of alvimopan considering varying definitions of postoperative ileus. J Am Coll Surg 221(5):941–950

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  275. 275.

    Traut U, Brugger L, Kunz R, Pauli-Magnus C, Haug K, Bucher HC et al (2008) Systemic prokinetic pharmacologic treatment for postoperative adynamic ileus following abdominal surgery in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:CD004930

    Google Scholar 

  276. 276.

    Narita K, Tsunoda A, Takenaka K, Watanabe M, Nakao K, Kusano M (2008) Effect of mosapride on recovery of intestinal motility after hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy for carcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum 51(11):1692–1695

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  277. 277.

    Toyomasu Y, Mochiki E, Morita H, Ogawa A, Yanai M, Ohno T et al (2011) Mosapride citrate improves postoperative ileus of patients with colectomy. J Gastrointest Surg 15(8):1361–1367

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  278. 278.

    Bozzetti F, Mariani L (2014) Perioperative nutritional support of patients undergoing pancreatic surgery in the age of ERAS. Nutrition 30(11–12):1267–1271

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  279. 279.

    Buscemi S, Damiano G, Palumbo VD, Spinelli G, Ficarella S, Lo Monte G et al (2015) Enteral nutrition in pancreaticoduodenectomy: a literature review. Nutrients 7(5):3154–3165

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  280. 280.

    Akizuki E, Kimura Y, Nobuoka T, Imamura M, Nagayama M, Sonoda T et al (2009) Reconsideration of postoperative oral intake tolerance after pancreaticoduodenectomy: prospective consecutive analysis of delayed gastric emptying according to the ISGPS definition and the amount of dietary intake. Ann Surg 249(6):986–994

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  281. 281.

    Lassen K, Revhaug A (2006) Early oral nutrition after major upper gastrointestinal surgery: why not? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 9(5):613–617

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  282. 282.

    Gerritsen A, Besselink MG, Gouma DJ, Steenhagen E, Borel Rinkes IH, Molenaar IQ (2013) Systematic review of five feeding routes after pancreatoduodenectomy. Br J Surg 100(5):589–598 discussion 99

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  283. 283.

    Gerritsen A, Wennink RAW, Besselink MGH, Van Santvoort HC, Tseng DSJ, Steenhagen E et al (2014) Early oral feeding after pancreatoduodenectomy enhances recovery without increasing morbidity. HPB 16(7):656–664

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  284. 284.

    Lassen K, Kjaeve J, Fetveit T, Trano G, Sigurdsson HK, Horn A et al (2008) Allowing normal food at will after major upper gastrointestinal surgery does not increase morbidity: a randomized multicenter trial. Ann Surg 247(5):721–729

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  285. 285.

    Fujii T, Nakao A, Murotani K, Okamura Y, Ishigure K, Hatsuno T et al (2015) Influence of food intake on the healing process of postoperative pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy: a multi-institutional randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg Oncol 22(12):3905–3912

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  286. 286.

    Braga M, Capretti G, Pecorelli N, Balzano G, Doglioni C, Ariotti R et al (2011) A prognostic score to predict major complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Ann Surg 254(5):702–707 discussion 7–8

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  287. 287.

    Gerritsen A, Besselink MG, Cieslak KP, Vriens MR, Steenhagen E, van Hillegersberg R et al (2012) Efficacy and complications of nasojejunal, jejunostomy and parenteral feeding after pancreaticoduodenectomy. J Gastrointest Surg 16(6):1144–1151

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  288. 288.

    Padussis JC, Zani S, Blazer DG, Tyler DS, Pappas TN, Scarborough JE (2014) Feeding jejunostomy during Whipple is associated with increased morbidity. J Surg Res 187(2):361–366

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  289. 289.

    Waliye HE, Wright GP, McCarthy C, Johnson J, Scales A, Wolf A et al (2017) Utility of feeding jejunostomy tubes in pancreaticoduodenectomy. Am J Surg 213(3):530–533

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  290. 290.

    Gilliland TM, Villafane-Ferriol N, Shah KP, Shah RM, Tran Cao HS, Massarweh NN et al (2017) Nutritional and metabolic derangements in pancreatic cancer and pancreatic resection. Nutrients 9(3):07

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  291. 291.

    Qinghua W, Qiangpu C (2012) Jejunal tube feeding and pancreatoduodenectomy. Hepatogastroenterology 59(120):2653–2656

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  292. 292.

    Seres DS, Valcarcel M, Guillaume A (2013) Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition. Ther Adv Gastroenterol 6(2):157–167

    Article  Google Scholar 

  293. 293.

    Zhao XF, Wu N, Zhao GQ, Liu JF, Dai YF (2016) Enteral nutrition versus parenteral nutrition after major abdominal surgery in patients with gastrointestinal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Investig Med 64(5):1061–1074

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  294. 294.

    Lee SH, Lee JG (2016) Early enteral nutrition still has advantages in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. J Thorac Dis 8(10):E1340–E1342

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  295. 295.

    Lu JW, Liu C, Du ZQ, Liu XM, Lv Y, Zhang XF (2016) Early enteral nutrition vs parenteral nutrition following pancreaticoduodenectomy: experience from a single center. World J Gastroenterol 22(14):3821–3828

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  296. 296.

    Perinel J, Mariette C, Dousset B, Sielezneff I, Gainant A, Mabrut J et al (2016) Early enteral versus total parenteral nutrition in patients undergoing panreaticoduodenectomy: a randomized multicenter controlled trial (NUTRI DPC). United Eur Gastroenterol J 4(5 Supplement 1):A92-a3

    Google Scholar 

  297. 297.

    Probst P, Keller D, Steimer J, Gmur E, Haller A, Imoberdorf R et al (2016) Early combined parenteral and enteral nutrition for pancreaticoduodenectomy—retrospective cohort analysis. Ann Med Surg 6:68–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  298. 298.

    Zhu X, Wu Y, Qiu Y, Jiang C, Ding Y (2014) Comparative analysis of the efficacy and complications of nasojejunal and jejunostomy on patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Jpen J Parenter Enter Nutr 38(8):996–1002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  299. 299.

    Okabayashi T, Kobayashi M, Nishimori I, Sugimoto T, Akimori T, Namikawa T et al (2006) Benefits of early postoperative jejunal feeding in patients undergoing duodenohemipancreatectomy. World J Gastroenterol 12(1):89–93

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  300. 300.

    Brower RG (2009) Consequences of bed rest. Crit Care Med 37(10 Suppl):S422–S428

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  301. 301.

    Castelino T, Fiore JF Jr, Niculiseanu P, Landry T, Augustin B, Feldman LS (2016) The effect of early mobilization protocols on postoperative outcomes following abdominal and thoracic surgery: a systematic review. Surgery 159(4):991–1003

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  302. 302.

    Fiore JF Jr, Castelino T, Pecorelli N, Niculiseanu P, Balvardi S, Hershorn O et al (2017) Ensuring early mobilization within an enhanced recovery program for colorectal surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg 266(2):223–231

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  303. 303.

    Coolsen MM, van Dam RM, van der Wilt AA, Slim K, Lassen K, Dejong CH (2013) Systematic review and meta-analysis of enhanced recovery after pancreatic surgery with particular emphasis on pancreaticoduodenectomies. World J Surg 37(8):1909–1918. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-013-2044-3

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  304. 304.

    Morales Soriano R, Esteve Perez N, Tejada Gavela S, Cuadrado Garcia A, Rodriguez Pino JC, Moron Canis JM et al (2015) Outcomes of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme for pancreaticoduodenectomy. Cir Esp 93(8):509–515

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  305. 305.

    Vollmer CM, Asbun HJ, Barkun J, Besselink MG, Boggi U, Conlon KC et al (2017) Proceedings of the first international state-of-the-art conference on minimally-invasive pancreatic resection (MIPR). HPB (Oxford) 19(3):171–177

    Article  Google Scholar 

  306. 306.

    Edwin B, Sahakyan MA, Abu Hilal M, Besselink MG, Braga M, Fabre JM et al (2017) Laparoscopic surgery for pancreatic neoplasms: the European association for endoscopic surgery clinical consensus conference. Surg Endosc 31(5):2023–2041

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  307. 307.

    Takagi K, Yoshida R, Yagi T, Umeda Y, Nobuoka D, Kuise T et al (2018) Effect of an enhanced recovery after surgery protocol in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Nutr (Edinburgh, Scotland). http://cochranelibrary-wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/089/CN-01450089/frame.html

  308. 308.

    Poves I, Burdio F, Morato O, Iglesias M, Radosevic A, Ilzarbe L et al (2018) Comparison of perioperative outcomes between laparoscopic and open approach for pancreatoduodenectomy: the PADULAP randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg 268(5):731–739

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  309. 309.

    Palanivelu C, Senthilnathan P, Sabnis SC, Babu NS, Srivatsan Gurumurthy S, Anand Vijai N et al (2017) Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic versus open pancreatoduodenectomy for periampullary tumours. Br J Surg 104(11):1443–1450

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  310. 310.

    de Rooij T, van Hilst J, Bosscha K, Dijkgraaf MG, Gerhards MF, Groot Koerkamp B et al (2018) Minimally invasive versus open pancreatoduodenectomy (LEOPARD-2): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 19(1):1

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  311. 311.

    van Hilst J, de Rooij T, Bosscha K, Brinkman DJ, van Dieren S, Dijkgraaf MG et al (2019) Laparoscopic versus open pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic or periampullary tumours (LEOPARD-2): a multicentre, patient-blinded, randomised controlled phase 2/3 trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 4(3):199–207

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  312. 312.

    Adam MA, Thomas S, Youngwirth L, Pappas T, Roman SA, Sosa JA (2017) Defining a hospital volume threshold for minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy in the United States. JAMA Surg 152(4):336–342

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  313. 313.

    Kutlu OC, Lee JE, Katz MH, Tzeng CD, Wolff RA, Varadhachary GR et al (2018) Open pancreaticoduodenectomy case volume predicts outcome of laparoscopic approach: a population-based analysis. Ann Surg 267(3):552–560

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  314. 314.

    Klompmaker S, van Hilst J, Wellner UF, Busch OR, Coratti A, D’Hondt M et al (2018) Outcomes after minimally-invasive versus open pancreatoduodenectomy: a pan-European propensity score matched study. Ann Surg 271:356–363

    Article  Google Scholar 

  315. 315.

    Zhao W, Liu C, Li S, Geng D, Feng Y, Sun M (2018) Safety and efficacy for robot-assisted versus open pancreaticoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Surg Oncol 27(3):468–478

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  316. 316.

    Ivers N, Jamtvedt G, Flottorp S, Young JM, Odgaard-Jensen J, French SD et al (2012) Audit and feedback: effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6:CD000259

    Google Scholar 

  317. 317.

    Tuti T, Nzinga J, Njoroge M, Brown B, Peek N, English M et al (2017) A systematic review of electronic audit and feedback: intervention effectiveness and use of behaviour change theory. Implement Sci 12(1):61

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  318. 318.

    Francis NK, Walker T, Carter F, Hubner M, Balfour A, Jakobsen DH et al (2018) Consensus on training and implementation of enhanced recovery after surgery: a delphi study. World J Surg 42(7):1919–1928. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-017-4436-2

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nicolas Demartines.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Melloul, E., Lassen, K., Roulin, D. et al. Guidelines for Perioperative Care for Pancreatoduodenectomy: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Recommendations 2019. World J Surg 44, 2056–2084 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-020-05462-w

Download citation