Hakim Mohammad: A Persian Military Surgeon in Safavid Era (1501–1736 CE)
- 31 Downloads
Wars and injuries have accompanied mankind throughout history. Physicians and surgeons from various civilizations made difficult attempts to manage wounds and injuries. Among various civilizations, the Persian Empires had great armies which were well equipped. One of the most important organizations in Persian troops was the military surgery.
This study presents a brief biography of Hakim Mohammad (a military surgeon in Safavid era) and introduces his book, Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah.
Results and Discussion
Safavid kings (1501–1736 CE) with unifying all of Persian regions and provinces reconstructed the Persian Empire. Great scholars and physicians were raised in this era. It seems that Persian physicians and surgeons were well trained in Safavid era and many of them were even employed by other countries like Ottoman Empire and India. Hakim Mohammad as a military surgeon was one of such physicians who served in Ottoman Empire for some time. He gathered his surgical experiences and others in the book of Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah. This book was written in Persian. He has mainly written about the management of wounds and practical techniques. Later, he came back to his homeland and dedicated his book to the king of Persia.
We gratefully acknowledge Dr. Hasan Mirsalehian (Assistant Professor, School of Dentistry, Shahed University) for sharing the photos of manuscripts of Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah. We are especially grateful to Dr. Zahra Bahaedin to cooperate in literary editing of the article.
- 1.Price B (1999) The influence of military surgeons in the development of vascular surgery. JRAMC 145:148Google Scholar
- 2.Alberts IL (n.d.) John Hunter—a very modern military surgeon. In: The Hunterian Society web site. http://www.hunteriansociety.org.uk/IL%20Alberts%20-%20Hunter%20a%20very%20modern%20military%20surgeon.pdf. Accessed in 29 May 2017
- 4.Garrison FH (1921) Notes on the history of military medicine. Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim, New York, p 1Google Scholar
- 5.Adamson P (1982) The military surgeon: his place in history. JRAMC 128:43–50Google Scholar
- 6.Misra GS (2006) Surgery in the War-Zone. MJAFI 62:210–211Google Scholar
- 8.Short B (2009) Imhotep and the origins of ancient egyptian military medicine. ADF Health 10(1):48–50Google Scholar
- 10.Daunton C, Kothari S, Smith L et al (2012) A history of materials and practices for wound management. J Aust Wound Manag Assoc 20:174Google Scholar
- 13.Khoshdel AR (2016) Past, present and future of Iranian naval health and maritime medicine. J Arch Mil Med 4:e37046Google Scholar
- 14.Xenophon (2016) Cyropaedia. Create Space Independent Publishing Platform, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 16.Mejia L (1994) Fortification of foods: historical development and current practices. Food Nutr Bull 15:278–281Google Scholar
- 20.Syed IB (2002) Islamic medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times. JISHIM 2:2–9Google Scholar
- 22.Golshani SA (2012) Abu Maher Shirazi: the founder of Shiraz medical doctrine. Res Hist Med 1:17–19 (in persian)Google Scholar
- 23.McCallum JE (2008) Military medicine: from ancient times to the 21st century. Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, p 168Google Scholar
- 26.Golshani SA, Ghafouri Z, Hakimipour A (2012) Baha’al-Dawlah Razi (860–912 AH), the innovator surgeon, empiricist physician and pioneer in immunology. J Res Hist Med 1(4):185–190 (in persian)Google Scholar
- 27.Ansari A (2010) Unani system of medicine and development of its materia medica. IJPR 3:21Google Scholar
- 28.Alakbarli F, Hajiyeva E (2011) Muhammad Mumin and his famous work “Tuhfat al-Muminin” (The gift of true believers) (17th century AD). Int J Hist Philos Med 1:1–3Google Scholar
- 29.Packard FR (1938) Annals of medical history. P.B. Hoeber, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 30.Golshani SA, Dalfardi B, Motahari ES et al (2013) Hakim Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn-Mas’ud Shirazi (1515–1592), a physician and social pathologist of Safavid Era. GMJ 2:169–173Google Scholar
- 31.Loloi K, Ahmadi Sh (2012) Medical and Iranian hospitals condition in Safavid era. Q J Hist Dep Imam Khomeini Specialized Univ 17:3–20 (in persian)Google Scholar
- 32.Elgood C (1970) Safavid medical practice: or, the practice of medicine, surgery and gynaecology in Persia between 1500 A.D. and 1750 A.D. Luzac, Lodon, p 15Google Scholar
- 33.Elgood C (1966) Safavid surgery. Symposium Publications Division, Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 34.Mohammad H (2014) Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah. Mirsalehian H (ed). Almaei-publications, Tehran (in Persian; originally written in 17th century CE)Google Scholar
- 35.Mir Jafari H (1975) A prescription of a Persian physician to Suleiman the magnificent. Honar Mardom 159–160(14):35–37 (in persian)Google Scholar
- 36.Yegane MS, Golshani SA, Emadi F et al (2017) Hakim Muhammad Sabzevari and Ghiaseddin Sabzevari, two Iranian Physicians in the court of Ottoman Sultans. Res Hist Med 6:53–59 (in persian)Google Scholar