Factors Associated with Premalignant Epithelial Changes in Chronic Calculous Cholecystitis: A Case–Control Study



Gallstones are known to be associated with premalignant changes in the gallbladder epithelium that range from atypical hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia to carcinoma. Recognition of factors associated with these changes in patients with gallstones can potentially be helpful in identifying patients to whom prophylactic cholecystectomy can be offered to reduce the chances of developing carcinoma.


To identify factors associated with premalignant epithelial changes including atypical hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia in gallbladder mucosa in patients with chronic calculus cholecystitis.

Materials and methods

This was retrospective case–control study conducted over a period of 10 years from 2004 to 2014. Cases were patients with reported histopathological premalignant epithelial changes along with chronic calculus cholecystitis, and controls were patients without premalignant epithelial changes but chronic calculus cholecystitis. Controls were twice the number of the cases.


Over study period, 92 patients were reported to have premalignant epithelial changes on gall bladder histopathology for whom 184 controls were selected. Of cases, 61 (66%) patients had atypical hyperplasia, while metaplasia and dysplasia were present in 26 (28%) and 5 (5%) cases, respectively. Mean age was 47.5 ± 14.5 years, and 74% of the study population were female. Wall thickness of more than 3 mm (OR = 4.14, p value < 0.001) turned out to be statistically significant independent variables associated with premalignant lesions in gallbladder mucosa.


Odds of premalignant epithelial change in gall bladder mucosa in patients with gall bladder wall thickness of more than 3 mm is four times the odds of patients with wall thickness less than 3 mm, and the effect is statistically significant. Prophylactic cholecystectomy should be considered for this group of patients.

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Correspondence to Noman Shahzad.

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Bangash, M., Alvi, A.R., Shahzad, N. et al. Factors Associated with Premalignant Epithelial Changes in Chronic Calculous Cholecystitis: A Case–Control Study. World J Surg 42, 1701–1705 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-017-4371-2

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