World Journal of Surgery

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 1278–1284 | Cite as

Outcomes of Emergency Laparotomy (EL) Care Protocol at Tertiary Care Center from Low–Middle-Income Country (LMIC)

  • Nitin Vashistha
  • Dinesh Singhal
  • Sandeep Budhiraja
  • Bharat Aggarwal
  • Raj Tobin
  • Kamal Fotedar
Original Scientific Report



Emergency laparotomy mortality ranges between 10 and 20% in best of Western healthcare systems and is currently a major focus for quality improvement programs. In contrast, emergency surgery scenario in LMIC is largely undefined, often neglected and complex (large burden of diseases but only limited capacity for adequate treatment). We evaluated the efficacy of ‘EL care protocol’ aimed at cost-effective optimal utilization of best available local expertise and infrastructure.


One hundred and two consecutive adult patients (≥16 years) who underwent EL from December 2012–December 2015 at a private tertiary hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The patients who underwent emergency laparoscopic procedures were excluded from the analysis. The EL care protocol included. (1) Admission to surgical intensive care unit for pre- and postoperative optimization. (2) Preferred radiologic investigation: abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. (3) Surgery and critical care by senior surgical gastroenterologists and internists/anesthesiologists, respectively. Outcome measures were procedure-related complications (Clavien–Dindo classification), readmissions and costs.


Of the 102 patients, there were 62 males and 40 females with median age of 60 (range 16–93) years. There were no complications in 22 (21.6%) patients, while Clavien–Dindo complications grade I or II occurred in 48 (47%) patients. Grade V Clavien–Dindo complications and the 30-day mortality were similar of 19 (18.6%). The readmission rate was 8 (7.8%). The expected mortality for the study group by P-POSSUM score was 31.2 (30.6%). The ratio (O/E) of observed to expected mortality was 0.61. The all inclusive median cost of treatment was INR 379,255 ($5590).


LMIC centers should develop their own center-specific EL care protocols to improve outcomes of EL.


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Copyright information

© Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nitin Vashistha
    • 1
  • Dinesh Singhal
    • 1
  • Sandeep Budhiraja
    • 2
  • Bharat Aggarwal
    • 3
  • Raj Tobin
    • 4
  • Kamal Fotedar
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Surgical GastroenterologyMax Super Speciality HospitalSaketIndia
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineMax Super Speciality HospitalSaketIndia
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyMax Super Speciality HospitalSaketIndia
  4. 4.Department of AnesthesiologyMax Super Speciality HospitalSaketIndia

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