World Journal of Surgery

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 1346–1357 | Cite as

Predictors and Time-Based Hospital Mortality in Patients with Isolated and Polytrauma Brain Injuries

  • Ayman El-Menyar
  • Rafael Consunji
  • Husham Abdelrahman
  • Rifat Latifi
  • Bianca M. Wahlen
  • Hassan Al-Thani
Original Scientific Report



Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We studied the predictors and time-based mortality in patients with isolated and polytrauma brain injuries in a rapidly developing country. We hypothesized that TBI-related 30-day mortality is decreasing over time.


A retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients with moderate-to-severe TBI who were admitted directly to a level 1 trauma center between 2010 and 2014. Patient’s data were analyzed and compared according to survival (survived vs. not survived), time (early death [2 days], intermediate [3–7 days] versus late [>7 days]) post-injury, and type (polytrauma vs. isolated TBI). Cox proportional hazards models were performed for the predictors of mortality.


A total of 810 patients were admitted with moderate-to-severe TBI with a median age of 27 years. Traffic-related injury was the main mechanism of TBI (65%). Isolated TBIs represented 22.6% of cases and 56% had head AIS >3. The overall mortality rate was 27%, and most of deaths occurred in the intermediate (40%) and early period (38%). The incidence of TBI was greater in patients aged 21–30 years but the mortality was proportionately higher among elderly. The average annual incidence was 8.43 per 100,000 population with an overall mortality of 2.28 per 100,000 population. Kaplan–Meier curves showed that polytrauma had greater mortality than isolated TBI. However, Cox survival analysis showed that age [Hazard ratio (HR) 1.02], scene GCS (HR 0.86),subarachnoid hemorrhage (HR 1.7), and blood transfusion amount (HR 1.03) were the predictors of mortality regardless of being polytrauma or isolated TBI after controlling for 14 relevant covariates.


The 30-day survival in patients with TBI is improving over the years in Qatar; however, the mortality remains high in the elderly males. The majority of deaths occurred within a week after the injury. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term survival in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI.



The authors thank the entire registry database team, trauma research office, injury prevention program in the section of trauma surgery for their contribution and continuous support. Data supporting the present findings can be obtained, if needed, after getting permission from the medical research center (MRC) at HMC (


This research did not receive any specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sector.

Authors' contributions

Authors have contributed to AE acquisition of data conception and design of the study, interpretation of data, writing manuscript, and critical review of manuscript; RC acquisition of data conception and design of the study, interpretation of data, writing manuscript, and critical review of manuscript; RL design of the study, interpretation of data, writing manuscript, and critical review of manuscript; HAR acquisition of data conception and design of the study, interpretation of data, writing manuscript, and critical review of manuscript; BW interpretation of data, writing manuscript, and critical review of manuscript; HAL study design, acquisition of data, and critical review of manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Research, Trauma Surgery SectionHamad General HospitalDohaQatar
  2. 2.Department of Clinical MedicineWeill Cornell Medical CollegeDohaQatar
  3. 3.Department of Surgery, Trauma Surgery SectionHamad General HospitalDohaQatar
  4. 4.Department of SurgeryWestchester Medical CenterValhallaUSA
  5. 5.Department of Anesthesia, Trauma SurgeryHamad General HospitalDohaQatar

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