World Journal of Surgery

, Volume 41, Issue 7, pp 1666–1671 | Cite as

Pathophysiology of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

  • Mariano A. Menezes
  • Fernando A. M. HerbellaEmail author
Surgical Symposium Contribution


Gastroesophageal reflux disease pathophysiology is multifactorial and linked to a misbalance between the aggressiveness of the refluxate into the esophagus or adjacent organs and the failure of protective mechanisms associate or not to a defective valvular mechanism at the level of the esophagogastric junction incapable of dealing with a transdiaphragmatic pressure gradient. Antireflux mechanisms include the lower esophageal sphincter and abdominal esophagus, the diaphragm, the angle of His, the Gubaroff valve, and the phrenoesophageal membrane. Protective mechanisms include esophageal motility, saliva production, and epithelial protection. Disruption of this balance occurs most commonly due to the presence of a hiatal hernia, esophageal dysmotility, a rise in abdominal pressure (obesity), and decrease in thoracic pressure (chronic lung diseases).


Hiatal Hernia Lower Esophageal Sphincter Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Esophageal Motility Esophagogastric Junction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to report.


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Copyright information

© Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariano A. Menezes
    • 1
  • Fernando A. M. Herbella
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryState University of LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, Escola Paulista de MedicinaFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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