Image and Pathological Changes after Radiofrequency Ablation of Invasive Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study of Nonsurgical Therapy of Early Breast Cancer
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The surgical treatment of early breast cancer has proceeded to less invasive approaches with better cosmetic results. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical and pathological findings after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) without resection for a longer period of time.
A total of 14 patients with breast cancer were enrolled. All patients were diagnosed to have invasive ductal carcinoma, and the median breast tumor size was 12 mm (range, 6–20 mm). Six patients received RFA treatment followed by immediate resection and eight patients without resection. The patients without resection were evaluated by ultrasound, MRI, and the pathological findings of a core needle biopsy after RFA. The removed specimens were examined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) diaphorase staining. The median follow-up of the patients was 39.9 months.
NADH staining was necessary to diagnose complete tumor cell death in the tissue for 3 months after RFA. However, HE staining alone could confirm the effect without NADH staining more than 6 months after RFA. Post-RFA, MRI scans clearly demonstrated the area as a complete ablated lesion in all patients without resection. The ablated area detected by MRI or ultrasound became gradually smaller. All patients that underwent RFA with no resection were alive without relapse.
RFA therefore could be an effective alternative to partial mastectomy for early breast cancer. Further research will be necessary to establish the standardization of the indications, as well as the optimal techniques and post treatment evaluation modalities.
KeywordsBreast Cancer Sentinel Node Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Early Breast Cancer Core Needle Biopsy
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