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Surgical Management of Gynecomastia—a 10-year Analysis

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Gynecomastia is defined as the benign enlargement of the male breast. Most studies on surgical treatment of gynecomastia show only small series and lack histopathology results. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical approach in the treatment of gynecomastia and the related outcome over a 10-year period.

Patients and methods

All patients undergoing surgical gynecomastia corrections in our department between 1996 and 2006 were included for retrospective evaluation. The data were analyzed for etiology, stage of gynecomastia, surgical technique, complications, risk factors, and histological results.


A total of 100 patients with 160 operations were included. Techniques included subcutaneous mastectomy alone or with additional hand-assisted liposuction, isolated liposuction, and formal breast reduction. Atypical histological findings were found in 3% of the patients (spindle-cell hemangioendothelioma, papilloma). The surgical revision rate among all patients was 7%. Body mass index and a weight of the resected specimen higher than 40 g were identified as significant risk factors for complications (p < 0.05).


The treatment of gynecomastia requires an individualized approach. Caution must be taken in performing large resections, which are associated with increased complication rates. Histological tissue analysis should be routinely performed in all true gynecomastia corrections, because histological results may reveal atypical cellular pathology.

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Correspondence to A. E. Handschin.

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Handschin, A.E., Bietry, D., Hüsler, R. et al. Surgical Management of Gynecomastia—a 10-year Analysis. World J Surg 32, 38–44 (2008).

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