Skip to main content
Log in

Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors: Factors that Predict Outcome

  • Original Scientific Reports
  • Published:
World Journal of Surgery Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumors originating in multiple locations throughout the GI tract. The prognosis for patients with GI carcinoid tumors is diverse. To determine the factors that significantly affect prognosis, we reviewed our experience. Between 1992 and 2000 a total of 70 patients with GI carcinoid tumors underwent surgical resection at our institution. The patients were grouped into three categories based on the origin of the carcinoid tumor: foregut, midgut, hindgut. The mean age of the patients was 56 ± 2 years. All patients with foregut carcinoids had symptoms upon presentation, whereas 61% of those with midgut carcinoids and only 37% of those with hindgut carcinoids had symptoms (p < 0.001). The factors that most strongly affected survival on univariate analysis were a symptomatic presentation and the site of origin. Patients with foregut or midgut lesions had lower 5-year disease-free survivals than those with hindgut tumors. Moreover, the size of the primary tumor and the presence of liver metastases were not independent predictors of survival. Despite the larger tumor size and the higher incidence of liver metastases, patients with foregut carcinoids appear to have the same prognosis as those with midgut carcinoids. These data therefore suggest that the outcomes of patients with carcinoid tumors are highly dependent on the presence of symptoms and the site of origin.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. S Oberndorfer (1907) ArticleTitleUber die ’kleinen Dunndormcarcinome.’ Verh Dtsch. Ges. Pathol. 11 113–116

    Google Scholar 

  2. RJ Sanders et al. (1973) History RJ Sanders IN Kugelmass (Eds) Carcinoids of the Gastrointestinal Tract Charles C Thomas Springfield, IL 3–9

    Google Scholar 

  3. H Chen JM Hardacre A Uzar et al. (1998) ArticleTitleIsolated liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors: does resection prolong survival? J. Am. Coll. Surg. 187 88–92 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S1072-7515(98)00099-4 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DyaK1czitFCltQ%3D%3D Occurrence Handle9660030

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Sippel RS, Chen H. An update of carcinoid tumors. In Brunt LM, editor, Problems in General Surgery: Non-thyroid Endocrine Surgery, Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2003) Vol 20, No. 3, pp 125–133

  5. IM Modlin A Sandor (1997) ArticleTitleAn analysis of 8305 cases of carcinoid tumors Cancer 79 813–829 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:ByiC2sjhs1w%3D Occurrence Handle9024720

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. JD Godwin (1975) ArticleTitleCarcinoid tumors: an analysis of 2837 cases Cancer 36 560–569 Occurrence Handle1157019

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. T Berge F Linell (1976) ArticleTitleCarcinoid tumors. frequency in a defined population during a 12 year period Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 86 322–330

    Google Scholar 

  8. IM Modlin KD Lyle M Kidd (2003) ArticleTitleA 5-decade analysis of 13,715 carcinoid tumors Cancer 97 934–959 Occurrence Handle10.1002/cncr.11105 Occurrence Handle12569593

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. N Habal C Sims AJ Bilchik (2000) ArticleTitleGastrointestinal carcinoid tumors and second primary malignancies J. Surg. Oncol. 75 301–306 Occurrence Handle10.1002/1096-9098(200012)75:4<306::AID-JSO14>3.0.CO;2-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. YM Zakariai SHQ Quan SI Hafdu (1975) ArticleTitleCarcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract Cancer 35 588–591 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:CSqD1M7ptlc%3D Occurrence Handle1111928

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. J Zeitels K Naumheim EL Kaplan et al. (1982) ArticleTitleCarcinoid tumors: a 37-year experience Arch. Surg. 117 732–737 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:Bi2C1c7mtVw%3D Occurrence Handle7073496

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. SM Sjoblom (1988) ArticleTitleClinical presentation and prognosis of gastrointestinal tumours Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 23 779–787 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:BiaC2crpvV0%3D Occurrence Handle3227292

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. GB Thompson JA Heerden Particlevan JK Martin SuffixJr et al. (1985) ArticleTitleCarcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: presentation, management and prognosis Surgery 98 1054–1062 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:BimD2s%2FoslM%3D Occurrence Handle4071383

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. KO Shebani WW Souba DM Finkelstein et al. (1999) ArticleTitlePrognosis and survival in patients with gastrointestinal tract carcinoid tumors Ann. Surg. 229 815–821 Occurrence Handle10.1097/00000658-199906000-00008 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DyaK1M3ptVGlsQ%3D%3D Occurrence Handle10363895

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. PM Kirshbom AR Kherani MW Onaitis et al. (1999) ArticleTitleForegut carcinoids: a clinical and biochemical analysis Surgery 126 1105–1110 Occurrence Handle10.1067/msy.2099.101430 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DC%2BD3c%2Fms1Wnsw%3D%3D Occurrence Handle10598194

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. MW Onaitis PM Kirshbom TZ Hayward et al. (2000) ArticleTitleGastrointestinal carcinoids: characterization by site of origin and hormone production Ann. Surg. 232 549–556 Occurrence Handle10.1097/00000658-200010000-00010 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DC%2BD3M%2Fhs1eiuw%3D%3D Occurrence Handle10998653

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. ET Janson L Holmberg M Stridsberg et al. (1997) ArticleTitleCarcinoid tumors: analysis of prognostic factors and survival in 301 patients from a referral center Ann. Oncol. 8 685–690 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1008215730767 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:ByiH2c3gtVA%3D Occurrence Handle9296223

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. BH Federspiel AP Burke LH Sobin et al. (1990) ArticleTitleRectal and colonic carcinoids: a clinicopathologic study of 84 cases Cancer 65 135–140 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:By%2BD1M%2Fjs1E%3D Occurrence Handle2293859

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. AB Jetmore JE Ray JB Gathright et al. (1992) ArticleTitleRectal carcinoids: the most frequent tumor Dis. Colon Rectum 35 717–725 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:By2A2MvkvVc%3D Occurrence Handle1643994

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. S Saha S Hoda R Godfrey et al. (1989) ArticleTitleCarcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: a 44 year experience South. Med. J. 82 1501–1505 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:By%2BD1cvmtlc%3D Occurrence Handle2595419

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. AP Burke RM Thomas AM Elsayed et al. (1997) ArticleTitleCarcinoids of the jejunum and ileum: an immunohistochemical and clinical pathological study of 167 cases Cancer 70 1086–1093 Occurrence Handle10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19970315)79:6<1086::AID-CNCR5>3.3.CO;2-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. CG Moertel WG Sauer MB Dockerty et al. (1961) ArticleTitleLife history of the carcinoid tumor in the small intestine Cancer 14 901–912 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:CC%2BD1M7ntFM%3D Occurrence Handle13771655

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. JA Soreide JA Heerden Particlevan GB Thompson et al. (2000) ArticleTitleGastrointestinal World J. Surg. 24 1431–1436 Occurrence Handle10.1007/s002680010236 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DC%2BD3M%2FlslKntg%3D%3D Occurrence Handle11038218

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. BC Morson (1978) The appendix WStC Symmers (Eds) Systemic Pathology, vol 3 Churchhill Livingstone New York 1175–1176

    Google Scholar 

  25. RC Foreman (1952) ArticleTitleCarcinoid tumors: a report of 38 cases Ann. Surg. 136 838–855 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:CyyD3M%2FptVE%3D Occurrence Handle12986664

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. TH Wareing JL Sawyers (1983) ArticleTitleCarcinoids and the carcinoid syndrome Am. J. Surg. 145 769–772 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:BiyB38fnsVY%3D Occurrence Handle6859414

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. H Beaton W Homan P Dineen (1981) ArticleTitleGastrointestinal carcinoids and the malignant carcinoid syndrome Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 152 268–272 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:Bi6C38nntFU%3D Occurrence Handle7466571

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. CG Moertel LH Weiland DM Nagorney et al. (1987) ArticleTitleCarcinoid tumor of the appendix: treatment and prognosis N. Engl. J. Med. 317 1699–1701 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:BieD1Mvlt1U%3D Occurrence Handle3696178

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. J Soga Y Yakuwa (1995) ArticleTitleGoblet cell carcinoids of the appendix: a statistical evaluation of the biological behavior in 170 cases collected from the literature as compared to 456 ordinary type appendiceal carcinoids J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 14 145–153

    Google Scholar 

  30. A Sandor IM Modlin (1998) ArticleTitleA retrospective analysis of 1570 appendiceal carcinoids Am. J. Gastroenterol. 93 422–428 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0002-9270(97)00117-2 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DyaK1c7ns1ygsg%3D%3D Occurrence Handle9517651

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. JP Dunn (1982) ArticleTitleCarcinoid tumours of the appendix: 21 cases with a review of the literature N. Z. Med. J. 95 73–76 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:Bi2C1MnhslQ%3D Occurrence Handle6952109

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. E Williams M Sandler (1963) ArticleTitleThe classification of carcinoid tumors Lancet 1 238 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:CC2C1M3ntlM%3D Occurrence Handle14000847

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. C Capella PU Heitz H Hofler et al. (1994) ArticleTitleRevised classification of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung, pancreas and gut Digestion 55 11–23 Occurrence Handle7698533

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. MA Memon H Nelson (1997) ArticleTitleGastrointestinal carcinoid tumors Dis. Colon Rectum 40 1101–1117 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:ByiH3sfhs1w%3D Occurrence Handle9293943

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Herbert Chen M.D..

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Van Gompel, J., Sippel, R., Warner, T. et al. Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors: Factors that Predict Outcome. World J. Surg. 28, 387–392 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-003-7019-3

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-003-7019-3

Keywords

Navigation