Skip to main content
Log in

Emotionality in Transboundary Water: A Case Study of Helmand River

  • Published:
Environmental Management Aims and scope Submit manuscript


While a substantial body of literature perceives rationality as the only path for negotiations over the use of the transboundary shared watercourse, recent scholarship has unveiled the role of emotion in decision-making processes over the use of the shared water. This research aims to challenge the conventional approach—rationality—by exploring affective dynamics of the riparian nations of the Helmand River (shared between upstream Afghanistan and downstream Iran) and how decisions over the use of the shared Helmand River are ingrained in the emotional dispositions of the riparian nations. Taking an integrated approach combining emotional political ecology and neoclassical realism, this research unravels the intricate emotional dynamics of the riparian nations to the flow of the Helmand River. The staggering increase in water withdrawal—both surface and groundwater resources— coupled with the population growth, and adverse effects of climate changes has stimulated the negative emotional dispositions of the borderland communities— the sufferings of farming communities due to lack of access to water—resulting in water conflict escalation in the Helmand River Basin. Finally, it is asserted that negotiations over the use of Helmand River are considered to be ill-equipped unless emotionality and rationality—a pluralistic approach— are equally weighed or gauged in water allocation and utilization by the co-riparian nations.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Data availability

The data and materials that support the findings are included in the manuscript.


  1. Transboundary water refers to lakes, aquifers, and rivers shared between two or more riparian nations. In the face of changing climate and increasing pressures on water resources, the misgovernance of the transboundary watercourse leads to social unrest among the upstream and downstream riparian nations (Kim and Glaumann 2012).


  • Abidi AHH (1977) Irano-afghan dispute over the helmand waters. Int Stud 16(3):357–378

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Achore M, Bisung E (2022) Experiences of inequalities in access to safe water and psycho-emotional distress in Ghana. Social. Sci Med 301:114970

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Afghanistan International (2024) Helmand river water reaches Afghanistan-Iran border point. Retrieved from: (accessed on June 04, 2024)

  • Akbari M, Mirchi A, Roozbahani A, Gafurov A, Kløve B, Haghighi AT (2022) Desiccation of the transboundary Hamun Lakes between Iran and Afghanistan in response to hydro-climatic droughts and anthropogenic activities. J Gt Lakes Res 48(4):876–889

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Allouche J (2005) Water nationalism: an explanation of the past and present conflicts in Central Asia, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent? (PhD Thesis, Genève, Institut universitaire de hautes études internationales

  • Allouche J (2020a). India’s water nationalism could open flood gates to international disputes. Institute of Development Studies. (accessed on May 12, 2024)

  • Allouche J (2020b) Nationalism, legitimacy and hegemony in transboundary water interactions. Water Altern 13(2):286–301

    Google Scholar 

  • Aman F (2016). Water dispute escalating between Iran and Afghanistan. (accessed on December 12, 2023)

  • Associated Press (AP) News. (2023) Iran warns Afghanistan’s Taliban rulers not to violate its water rights, over Helmand River. AP News. (accessed on December 22, 2023)

  • Azam F (2022). Farooq Azam’s response to Khan Muhammad Takal’s article on the Helmand Water Treaty. Pajhwok Afghan News - Reflecting the Truth. (accessed December 20, 2023)

  • Azimi AB, Hussaini SA (2021b) Where is the water of Hamuns. 8am. (accessed on December 01, 2023)

  • Barrett LF (2017) How emotions are made: The secret life of the brain. Boston New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

  • BBC Persian (2023). Kazemi Qomi says that according to Iranian experts, Helmand’s water has decreased, but Iran’s rightful share should be provided properly and justly”. BBC News فارسی. (accessed on December 12, 2023)

  • BBC Persian (2024). Iran received over 300 million cubic meters of water from Helmand River in the first three months of the year 2024. BBC News فارسی. (accessed on May 24, 2024)

  • Berger M, Mahoozi S (2023). As water shortages intensify Iran’s heat wave, authorities shift blame. Washington Post. (accessed on December 12, 2023)

  • Bowen GA (2009) Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qual Res J 9(2):27–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buono RM, Eckstein G (2022). Current challenges in the Rio Grande/Río Bravo Basin: old disputes in a new century. Water resources allocation and agriculture: transitioning from open to regulated access, Josselin Rouillard, Christina Babbitt, Edward Challies and Jean-Daniel Rinaudo, ed., Edward Elgar Publishing, 22–02

  • Cascão AE (2008) Ethiopia–challenges to Egyptian hegemony in the Nile Basin. Water Policy 10(S2):13–28

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cherry K (2022). The 6 types of basic emotions and their effect on human behavior. Verywell Mind. (accessed on December 02, 2023)

  • Cunsolo A, Ellis NR (2018) Ecological grief as a mental health response to climate change-related loss. Nat Clim Change 8(4):275–281

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dabiri, MR [Legal and historical study of Helmand River (Helmand)]. Diplomacy Irani. 2011. (accessed on November 28, 2023)

  • Dadabaev T, Sehring J, Djalilova N (2023) Central asian water neighbourhood: a constructivist reconceptualisation of hydropolitics in Central Asia. Water Altern 16(3):930–948

    Google Scholar 

  • Dagres H (2023). Iran and Afghanistan are feuding over the Helmand River. the water wars have no end in sight. Atlantic Council. (accessed on November 10, 2023)

  • Dallman S, Ngo M, Laris P, Thien D (2013) Political ecology of emotion and sacred space: The Winnemem Wintu struggles with California water policy. Emot Space Soc 6:33–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dominguez FJ, Lowry BL, Webb CE (1951) Report of the Helmand River Delta Commission- Afghanistan and Iran. accessed from (Accessed on 14 March 2024)

  • Erlikh Ḥ (2002) The cross and the river: Ethiopia, Egypt, and the Nile. Lynne Rienner Publishers

  • Eskandari R (2023). Water crisis in Iran: water bankruptcy and water mafia. BBC News فارسی. (accessed on December 20, 2023)

  • Fisher R, Shapiro D (2005). Beyond reason: using emotions as you negotiate. Penguin

  • Fomani M (2021). (Iran’s Baluch) بلوچ‌های ایران. آسو.

  • Goes BJM, Howarth SE, Wardlaw RB, Hancock IR, Parajuli UN (2016) Integrated water resources management in an insecure river basin: a case study of Helmand River Basin, Afghanistan. Int J water Resour Dev 32(1):3–25

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goldbaum C (2023). At least three are killed in clashes on Iranian-Afghan border. The New York Times. (accessed on December 19, 2023)

  • Gonz lez-Hidalgo M (2017) The politics of reflexivity: Subjectivities, activism, environmental conflict and Gestalt Therapy in southern Chiapas. Emot Space Soc 25:54–62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • González-Hidalgo M, Zografos C (2020) Emotions, power, and environmental conflict: expanding the ‘emotional turn’in political ecology. Prog Hum Geogr 44(2):235–255

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • González-Hidalgo M, Del Bene D, Iniesta-Arandia I, Piñeiro C (2022) Emotional healing as part of environmental and climate justice processes: frameworks and community-based experiences in times of environmental suffering. Political Geogr 98:102721

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gould D (2023). Political emotion, political horizons, and the question of composition in 2023. In XX ISA World Congress of Sociology. ISA

  • Gould DB (2013). Emotion and social movements. The Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of social and political movements.

  • Hall TH, Ross AA (2015) Affective politics after 9/11. Int Organ 69(4):847–879

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hanasz P (2013) Conflict, cooperation, and complexity: understanding transboundary water interactions. Glob Dialogue 15(2):17

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayat E (2022). Hydrological and meteorological drought and trend analysis in Afghanistan and their implications on transboundary rivers (Doctoral dissertation, Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey)). (accessed on November 29, 2023)

  • Helmand River Treaty (1973). The Afghan Iranian helmand river water treaty. Retrieved from documents/regionaldocs/1973_Helmand_River_Water_TreatyAfghanistan-Iran.pdf (accessed 2023-11-29). (accessed on December 20, 2023)

  • Hundley N (2001). The great thirst: Californians and water—A history. University of California Press

  • Hussaini SA, Azimi AB (2021a) Statute for illegal water rights, Helmand River Treaty is the only water treaty. 8am. (accessed on November 29, 2023)

  • Hussein H (2017) Whose ‘reality’? Discourses and hydro-politics along the Yarmouk River. Contemp Levant 2(2):103–115

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hutchison E (2016). Affective communities in world politics (Vol. 140). Cambridge University Press

  • Hutchison E (2018). Affective communities and world politics - e-international relations. E-International Relations. (accessed on December 11, 2023)

  • Hutchison E, Bleiker R (2014) Theorizing emotions in world politics. Int Theory 6(3):491–514

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ibrahim AM (2010) The Nile Basin cooperative framework agreement: the beginning of the end of Egyptian hydro-political hegemony. Mo Envtl L Pol’y Rev 18:282

    Google Scholar 

  • İlkbahar H, Mercan MH (2023) Hydro-hegemony, counter-hegemony and neoclassical realism on the Nile basin: an analysis of Egypt’s response to the grand Ethiopian Renaissance dam (GERD). J Asian Afr Stud (p. 1–16).

  • Iran International (2023) Share water, Iran’s president warns Taliban amid rising tension. Iran International. (accessed on November 18, 2023)

  • Ives CD, Kidwell J, Anderson CB, Arias-Arévalo P, Gould RK, Kenter J, Murali R (2024) The role of religion in shaping the values of nature. Ecol Soc. 29(2).

  • Jepson W, Vandewalle E (2016) Household water insecurity in the Global North: a study of rural and periurban settlements on the Texas–Mexico border. Prof Geogr 68(1):66–81

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keskinen M, Häkkinen E, Haapala J, Sharipova B (2023) Trust in transboundary waters: identifying trust-building in water diplomacy literature. Water Altern 16(3):949–977

    Google Scholar 

  • Kharazmi R, Tavili A, Rahdari MR, Chaban L, Panidi E, Rodrigo-Comino J (2018) Monitoring and assessment of seasonal land cover changes using remote sensing: A 30-year (1987–2016) case study of Hamoun Wetland, Iran. Environ Monit Assess, 190:1–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kim K, Glaumann K (2012) Transboundary water management: who does what, where? Analyzing the Data in SIWI’s Transboundary Water Management Database Swedish Water House, Stockholm. (accessed on December 14, 2023)

  • Kumar R(2023) On the Afghanistan-Iran border, climate change fuels a fight over water. Science 381:6658

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumar R (2023b) On the Afghanistan-Iran border, a fight over water.

  • Lane A (2020) The securitization of transboundary water resources: a discourse analysis of Iranian-afghan relations in the Helmand River Basin (Doctoral dissertation)

  • Lench HC, Reed NT, George T, Kaiser KA, North SG (2023) Anger has benefits for attaining goals. J Pers Soc Psychol

  • Lerner JS, Li Y, Valdesolo P, Kassam KS (2015) Emotion and decision making. Annu Rev Psychol 66:799–823

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loodin N (2021) The Role of Islam in Water Resources Management: Could it be Integrated into International Water Law Principles (IWLP) for the Islamic-dominated States? (accessed on November 13, 2023).

  • Loodin N (2023) Emotionality in domestic water use in the global south: who cares who is deprived of? Environ Soc Psychol 9(2):1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loodin N (2024) Tracing arsenic contamination in groundwater resources in Afghanistan. J Water Chem Technol, 2024 46(3):318–329

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loodin N, Warner J (2022) A review of hydro-hegemonic dynamics on the transboundary Harirud River basin: 2001–present. Water 14(21):3442

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loodin N, Wolf A (2021). Comparison and contrast of Islamic water management principles with international water law principles: a case study of Helmand River Basin.

  • Loodin N, Wolf AT (2022) Will Islamic water management principles be included if the Helmand river treaty is revisited? Water 14(1):67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loodin N, Eckstein G, Singh VP, Sanchez R (2023) Assessment of the trust crisis between upstream and downstream states of the Helmand River Basin (1973–2022): a half-century of optimism or cynicism? ACS EST Water 3(6):1654–1668

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Loodin N, Eckstein G, Singh VP, Sanchez R (2024). The role of data sharing in transboundary waterways: the case of the Helmand river basin. in theorizing transboundary waters in international relations (pp. 165–194). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

  • Loodin N, Keith T, Arynova A, Rosenblum Z, Ruzmatova Z (2021) A critical analysis of the food–energy–water nexus in the Kootenai River Basin. Sustain Water Resour Manag 7:1–13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loodin N, Eckstein G, Singh VP, Sanchez R (forthcoming). Reframing a data sharing mechanism for the riparian nations of helmand river basin: TPB is revisited, J Mount Sci (Springer, in press).

  • Madani K (2021). Explainer: Iran’s “water bankruptcy.” The Iran Primer.

  • Madani K, Mahoozi S (2022). Iran’s “water bankruptcy” is a warning for the entire Middle East. DAWN Democracy for the Arab World Now.

  • Madani K, AghaKouchak A, Mirchi A (2016) Iran’s socio-economic drought: challenges of a water-bankrupt nation. Iran Stud 49(6):997–1016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mahmoudi S Historical events after the signing of the Helmand River Water Treaty. 8am. 2017. (accessed on November 28, 2023).

  • Malyar I (2016). Transboundary water institutions in developing countries: a case study in Afghanistan. (accessed on December 05, 2023).

  • Mamasani P, Jafari M, Andik B, Mianabadi H, Arvin B, Ghoreishi SZ (2024) Relative deprivation, a silent driver in hydropolitics: evidence from Afghanistan-Iran water diplomacy. Water Altern 17(2):2

    Google Scholar 

  • Mayar MA (2022). The Climate Change Crisis in Afghanistan: The Catastrophe Worsens- What Hope for Action? Afghanistan Analyst Network. Retrieved from, (accessed on November 28, 2023).

  • Mayar MA (2023). The Long Winding River: Unravelling the Water Dispute between Afghanistan and Iran. Afghanistan Analyst Network. Retrieved from, (accessed on November 27, 2023).

  • McPherson M, Ropicki A (2021) Network analysis of collaboration and information sharing in the management of the Lower Mekong River Basin. Ocean Coast Manag 199:105356

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mehta L (2003). Contexts and constructions of water scarcity. Econo Politi Weekly, 5066–5072.

  • Menga F (2016) Reconceptualizing hegemony: the circle of hydro-hegemony. Water Policy 18(2):401–418

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mianabadi A, Davary K, Mianabadi H, Karimi P (2020) International environmental conflict management in transboundary river basins. Water Resour Manag 34:3445–3464

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mianabadi H, Alioghli S, Morid S (2021) Quantitative evaluation of ‘No-harm’rule in international transboundary water law in the Helmand River basin. J Hydrol 599:126368

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Minority Rights Group International (2023) Iran: Baluch people running out of water due to unfair water management. Minority and Indigenous Trends 2023: Focus on water. (accessed on November 20, 2023).

  • Mirosa O, Harris LM (2012) Human right to water: contemporary challenges and contours of a global debate. Antipode 44(3):932–949

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mirumachi N (2015) Transboundary water politics in the developing world. Routledge

  • Nagheeby M (2022). Ashraf Ghani’s ambitions to divert the Helmand River now serve his enemy, the Taliban: an international law perspective. EJIL: Talk! (accessed on December 07, 2023).

  • Nagheeby M (2023). The Worst or the Best Treaty? Analysing the equitable and reasonable utilization principle in the legal arrangements of the Helmand River. Asian J Int Law, 1–20.

  • Nagheeby M, Warner J (2022) The 150-Year Itch: Afghanistan-iran hydropolitics over the Helmand/Hirmand River. Water Alternat 15(3):551–573

    Google Scholar 

  • Pajhwok Monitor (2022). Iranian water protesters attack Afghan trucks. Pajhwok Afghan News Iranian water protesters attack Afghan trucks Comments.

  • Palmer-Moloney LJ (2014). Water’s role in measuring security and stability in Helmand Province, Afghanistan. In Water and post-conflict peacebuilding. Routledge. pp. 211–235.

  • Putro US, Mangkusubroto K, Ariyanto K (2007) Roles of emotion in negotiation process: an application of drama theory in citarum riverbasin problem. J Technol Manag 7(1):115890

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramawadh S, Jara D, Wolf AT, Sehring J (2023) Exploring spirituality in water diplomacy. Water Alternat 16(3):978–991

    Google Scholar 

  • Reuters (2023). At least three killed in clash on Iran-afghan border | Reuters. Reuters.

  • Ripsman NM, Taliaferro JW, Lobell SE (2016). Neoclassical realist theory of international politics. Oxford University Press.

  • Rose G (1998) Neoclassical realism and theories of foreign policy. World Politi 51(1):144–172.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rubin AJ (2023). A climate warning from the cradle of Civilization. The New York Times. (accessed on October 29, 2023).

  • Sadid N (2024a). Iran Invested on hydro-structures to divert the flow of Hamoun Sabiri, retrieved from: (accessed on June 02, 2024).

  • Sadid N (2024b). How much water has Iran received from Helmand River so far?, retrieved from: (accessed on June 02, 2024).

  • Salman SM (2010) Downstream riparians can also harm upstream riparians: the concept of foreclosure of future uses. Water Int 35(4):350–364

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scott J (2000) Rational choice theory. Underst Contemp Soc Theories Present 129:126–138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sehring J, Wolf AT (2023) Affective hydropolitics: introduction to the themed section. Water Altern 16(3):900–911

    Google Scholar 

  • Seide WM, Fantini E (2023) Emotions in water diplomacy: negotiations on the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam. Water Altern 16(3):912–929

    Google Scholar 

  • Shokory JA, Schaefli B, Lane SN (2023) Water resources of Afghanistan and related hazards under rapid climate warming: a review. Hydrol Sci J 68(3):507–525

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shroder JF, Ahmadzai SJ (2016). Transboundary water resources in Afghanistan: climate change and land-use implications. Elsevier.

  • Smith LKM, Wolfe SE (2023) Dead in the water: mortality messaging in water crisis communication and implications for pro‐environmental outcomes. People Nat 5(4):1336–1352

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sok S, Meas S, Chea S, Chhinh N (2019) Regional cooperation and benefit sharing for sustainable water resources management in the lower Mekong basin. Lakes Reserv Res Manag 24(3):215–227

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sultana F (2009) Fluid lives: subjectivities, gender, and water in rural Bangladesh. Gend Place Cult 16(4):427–444

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sultana F (2011) Suffering for water, suffering from water: emotional geographies of resource access, control and conflict. Geoforum 42(2):163–172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sultana F (2015). Emotional political ecology. In The International Handbook of Political Ecology. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 633–645.

  • Takal KM (2023). (accessed on December 14, 2023).

  • Tasnim News Agency T. (2023). Iran urges Taliban to allow expert visits to border dam amid water dispute - politics news. (accessed on November 12, 2023).

  • The Iran Primer (2023). Iran and Afghanistan clash over water rights. The Iran Primer, United States Institute of Peace. (accessed on November 18, 2023).

  • Thomas V, Godfrey S (2018) Understanding water-related emotional distress for improving water services: a case study from an Ethiopian small town. J Water Sanit Hyg Dev 8(2):196–207

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas V, Varzi MM (2015) A legal licence for an ecological disaster: the inadequacies of the 1973 Helmand/Hirmand water treaty for sustainable transboundary water resources development. Int J Water Resour Dev 31(4):499–518

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas V, Azizi MA, Behzad K (2016) Developing transboundary water resources: What perspectives for cooperation between Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan? (Vol. 6). Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, Kabul, Afghanistan, (accessed on November 28, 2023)

    Google Scholar 

  • Turak N (2023). Water wars: Afghanistan and Iran’s deadly border flare-up spotlights scarcity crisis. CNBC. (accessed on November 28, 2023).

  • USGS (2021). The Hamoun Wetlands. EROS.

  • Vasunia P (2001). The gift of the Nile: Hellenizing Egypt from Aeschylus to alexander (Vol. 8). University of California Press.

  • Vess M, Arndt J (2008) The nature of death and the death of nature: the impact of mortality salience on environmental concern. J Res Personal 42(5):1376–1380

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warner JF, Zeitoun M (2008) International relations theory and water do mix: a response to Furlong’s troubled waters, hydro-hegemony and international water relations. Politi Geogr 27(7):802–810

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warner J, Mirumachi N, Farnum RL, Grandi M, Menga F, Zeitoun M (2017) Transboundary ‘hydro‐hegemony’: 10 years later. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Water 4(6):e1242

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wheeler KG, Hussein H (2021) Water research and nationalism in the post-truth era. Water Int 46(7-8):1216–1223

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Whitney JW (2006) Geology, water, and wind in the Lower Helmand Basin, Southern Afghanistan. USGS Publications Warehouse. (accessed December 10, 2023).

  • Williams JM (2021) Is three a crowd? River basin institutions and the governance of the Mekong River. Int J Water Resour Dev 37(4):720–740

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wolfe SE (2017) Fear, anger and responsibility: the emotional content of historical speeches about water and water policy. Water Hist 9:317–336

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Woodhouse M, Zeitoun M (2008) Hydro-hegemony and international water law: grappling with the gaps of power and law. Water Policy 10(S2):103–119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wu HD, Coleman R (2014) The affective effect on political judgment: comparing the influences of candidate attributes and issue congruence. J Mass Commun Q 91(3):530–543

    Google Scholar 

  • Wutich A, Ragsdale K (2008) Water insecurity and emotional distress: coping with supply, access, and seasonal variability of water in a Bolivian squatter settlement. Soc Sci Med 67(12):2116–2125

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zeitoun M, Allan JA (2008) Applying hegemony and power theory to transboundary water analysis. Water Policy 10(S2):3–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zeitoun M, Warner J (2006) Hydro-hegemony–a framework for analysis of trans-boundary water conflicts. Water Policy 8(5):435–460

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zummo L, Gargroetzi E, Garcia A (2020) Youth voice on climate change: using factor analysis to understand the intersection of science, politics, and emotion. Environ Educ Res 26(8):1207–1226

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The author is grateful for the constructive feedback and thoughtful comments and suggestions provided by four anonymous reviewers over three rounds of review process. The author is also thankful to the endless support of the editorial board of the Environmental Management Journal- Springer.


This research did not receive funding from any research organization.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Najibullah Loodin, the sole author, has contributed to the entire manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Najibullah Loodin.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The author declares no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Loodin, N. Emotionality in Transboundary Water: A Case Study of Helmand River. Environmental Management (2024).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: