Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Falling “fortresses”: Unlocking Governance Entanglements and Shifting Knowledge Paradigms to Counter Climate Change Threats in Biodiversity Conservation

  • Published:
Environmental Management Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Biodiversity conservation is facing unprecedented challenges at the intersection of rapidly changing climates, widespread ecosystem degradation under the influence of global warming and resultant human tragedies over livelihood, habitation, adaptation and coping needs. These challenges are more acute across biodiversity hotspots in the Global South. This study disentangles the complex interplay to propose alternative paradigms of governance and policy thinking necessary for sustainable biodiversity conservation. Climate change impacts are exposing critical deficiencies of ‘scientific forest management’ pursued for over a century. For example, recurrent disasters and ecological shifts are increasingly obfuscating cognitive and physical boundaries between the reserve forest and human habitations; putting additional stress on livelihoods which in turn escalate pressures on the forest commons and fuel further conflicts between conservation governance and local communities. Instead of assisting in adaptation, the existing conservation governance mechanisms are producing further conflicts between humans and non-humans; livelihoods and conservation; disaster management and development. Conducted in the Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve –world’s largest mangrove forest ecosystem and a climate change hotspot located along the Bay of Bengal across India and Bangladesh –the study finds an urgent need of rethinking and recalibrating biodiversity conservation in the times of climate change. However, institutional and market-based approaches such as promoting ecotourism or mangrove plantations may have little impact in this regard, the study finds. Instead, integrating cultural ecosystem services and co-producing knowledge will be critical to tackle the entanglements of climate change and its impacts on local lives, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation

  2. Fish species with no commercial value but high tolerance level to pollutants

  3. Avicennia marina, Suaedamaritima

  4. Rhizophoramucronata

  5. Aglaiacuculata, Brownlowiatersa, Heritierafomes, Kandeliacandel and Nypafruticans

  6. Clerodendroninerme, Derris trifoliata and Phoenix paludosa

  7. Mukherjee, K., (2020) Lockdown, Amphan trigger rise in Sunderbans man-tiger conflicts, August 24, 2020

    https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kolkata/lockdown-amphan-trigger-rise-in-sunderbans-man-tiger-conflict/articleshow/77709495.cms Accessed on January 17, 20201

  8. Chakraborty, S., (2020) Cyclone Amphan rips off tiger fence in Sunderbans, May 23, 2020, https://www.telegraphindia.com/west-bengal/cyclone-amphan-rips-off-tiger-fence-in-sunderbans/cid/1775363

  9. Where limited human activity is allowed including logging, fishing and honey collection, mainly the Sundarban reserve forest

  10. In case of an attack in the protected areas, the wildlife and forest laws do not allow any compensation as these areas prohibited for any human activity or even entry

  11. Panchayati Raj System is a three-tier, rural self governance legislative body that governs the rural areas in India. Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI) as they are called denotes the local governance structure established under the 73rd Amendment Bill and now prevalent across India in all villages

  12. CRZ-1: These are ecologically sensitive areas these are essential in maintaining the ecosystem of the coast. They lie between low and high tide line. Exploration of natural gas and extraction of salt are permitted

References

  • Abrahams D, Carr ER (2017) Understanding the connections between climate change and conflict: contributions from geography and political ecology. Curr Clim Change Rep 3:233–242

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alongi DM (2014) Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests. Annu Rev Mar Sci 6:195–219

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Asquith NM, Vargas MT, Wunder S (2008) Selling two environmental services: in-kind payments for bird habitat and watershed protection in Los Negros, Bolivia. Ecol Econ 65:675–684

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Azad MS, Kamruzzaman M, Osawa A (2019) The influences of cyclone on abundance, species diversity and floristic composition in mangrove ecosystem in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh Reg Stud Mar Sci 28:100621

    Google Scholar 

  • Bandyopadhyay S, Das S, Kar NS (2015) Discussion: ‘Changing river courses in the western part of the Ganga–Brahmaputra delta’ by Kalyan Rudra (2014), Geomorphology, 227, 87–100. Geomorphology 250:442–453

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Banerjee K (2013) Decadal change in the surface water salinity profile of Indian Sundarbans: a potential indicator of climate change. J Marine Sci: Res Dev S11:002. https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9910.S11-002

  • Barriball KL, While A(1994) Collecting data using a semi-structured interview: a discussion paper J Adv Nurs-Inst Subscr 19(2):328–335

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beinart W, Hughes L (2007) Environment and empire: Oxford History of the British Empire Companion Series. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Bellard C, Bertelsmeier C, Leadley P, Thuiller W, Courchamp F (2012) Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity. Ecol Lett 15(4):365–377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beymer-Farris BA, Bassett TJ (2012) The REDD menace: resurgent protectionism in a Tanzania’s mangrove forests. Glob Environ Change 22:332–341

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bhowmik AK, Cabral P (2013) Cyclone Sidr impacts on the Sundarbans floristic diversity. Earth Sci Res 2(2):62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Black R (1990) ‘Regional political ecology’ in theory and practice: a case study from Northern Portugal Trans Inst Br Geogr 15(1):35–47

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blaikie, P (1985) The political economy of soil erosion in developing countries. Longman.

  • Blaxter L, Hughes C, Tight M (2001) How to research.Open University Press, U.K

    Google Scholar 

  • Bosire JO, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Walton M, Crona BI, Lewis RR, Field C, Kairo JG, Koedam N (2008) Functionality of restored mangroves: a review. Aquat Bot 89/2:251–259

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brockington D (2002) Fortress conservation: the preservation of the Mkomazi Game Reserve. Indiana University Press, Tanzania. Bloomington

    Google Scholar 

  • Castree N (2008) Neoliberalizing nature: the logic of deregulation and reregulation. Environ Plan A 40:131–152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chacraverti S (2014) The Sundarbans fishers: coping in an overly stressed Mangrove estuary. International Collective in Support of Fishworkers, Chennai

    Google Scholar 

  • Chakrabarti K (1992) Man-eating tigers. Darbari Prokashan, Calcutta

    Google Scholar 

  • Chakraborty S (2020) Cyclone Amphan rips off tiger fence in Sunderbans, https://www.telegraphindia.com/west-bengal/cyclone-amphan-rips-off-tiger-fence-in-sunderbans/cid/1775363

  • Chatterjee N, Mukhopadhyay R, Mitra D (2015) Decadal changes in shoreline patterns in Sundarbans, India. J Coast Sci 2(2):54–64

    Google Scholar 

  • Chaturvedi RK, Kattumuri R, Ravindranath D (2014) Mainstreaming adaptation to climate change in Indian policy planning. Int J Appl Econ Econ 22(1):23–56

    Google Scholar 

  • Chechina M, Neveux Y, Parkins JR, Hamann A (2018) Balancing conservation and livelihoods: a study of forest-dependent communities in the Philippines. Conserv Soc 16(4):420–430

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chowdhury A, Sanyal P, Maiti SK (2016) Dynamics of mangrove diversity influenced by climate change and consequent accelerated sea level rise at Indian Sundarbans. Int J Glob Warming 9(4):486–506

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clement S, Standish RJ (2018) Novel ecosystems: governance and conservation in the age of the Anthropocene. J Environ Manag 208:36–45

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corlett RT (2015) The Anthropocene concept in ecology and conservation Trends Ecol Evol 30(1):36–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crabtree BF, Miller WL (1992) Doing qualitative research. In Annual North American Primary Care Research Group Meeting, 19th, May, 1989, Quebec, PQ, Canada. Sage Publications, Inc.

  • Creswell JW (2013) Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage publications

  • Danda AA (2007) Surviving in the Sundarbans: threats and responses. Unpublished Ph. D. thesis. University of Twente

  • Das CS (2012) Tiger straying incidents in Indian Sundarban: statistical analysis of case studies as well as depredation caused by conflict. Eur J Wildl Res 58(1):205–214

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dasgupta S, Huq M, Sobhan I, Wheeler D(2018) Sea-level rise and species conservation in Bangladesh’s Sundarbans region J Mgmt Sustain 8:1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Denzin N (2006) Sociological methods: a sourcebook. 5th ed. Aldine Transaction, New York, NY

    Google Scholar 

  • D’Souza NM, Ishwar NM, Sumra I, Vyas P (2017) Participatory wetland management: a solution to conservation challenges in the sundarbans biosphere reserve. In Wetland science (pp. 575–587). Springer, New Delhi

  • Dutta K (2020) Under her Vigil: When a Goddess guards the forest. In: Ghosh A (ed) “Tides of Life” (2020), Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts, Government of India, ISBN 978-81-942224-1-5

  • Dutta D, Das PK, Paul S, Sharma JR, Dadhwal VK (2015) Assessment of ecological disturbance in the mangrove forest of Sundarbans caused by cyclones using MODIS time-series data (2001–2011). Nat Hazards 79(2):775–790

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ellis EC (2019) To conserve nature in the Anthropocene, half earth is not nearly enough. One Earth 1(2):163–167

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ellison AM, Felson AJ, Friess DA (2020) Mangrove rehabilitation and restoration as experimental adaptive management. Front Mar Sci 7:327

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferreira AF, Zimmermann H, Santos R, Von Wehrden H (2018) A social–ecological systems framework as a tool for understanding the effectiveness of biosphere reserve management. Sustainability 10(10):3608

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferreira AF, Zimmermann H, Santos R, von Wehrden H (2020) Biosphere reserves’ management effectiveness—a systematic literature review and a research agenda. Sustainability 12(14):5497

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fickert T (2020) To plant or not to plant, that is the question: reforestation vs. natural regeneration of Hurricane-Disturbed Mangrove Forests in Guanaja (Honduras). Forests 11(10):1068

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fletcher R (2017) Environmentality unbound: multiple governmentalities in environmental politics. Geoforum 85:311–315

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Forsyth T (2005) The political ecology of the ecosystem approach for the forests. In: Sayer J, Magginis S (eds) Forests in landscapes: ecosystem approaches for sustainability (pp. 165–176). Earthscan, London

  • Gadgil M, Rao PRS (1995) Designing incentives to conserve India’s biodiversity. In: Hanna S, Munasinghe M (eds) Property rights in a social and ecological context. (pp. 53–62). Washington D.C. 206: The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics and the World Bank

  • Ghosh A (2012) Living with changing climate—impact, vulnerability and adaptation challenges in Indian Sundarbans. Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, India

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghosh A (2018) Sustainability conflicts in coastal India. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63892-8

  • Ghosh A, Schmidt S, Fickert T, Nüsser M (2015) The Indian Sundarban mangrove forests: history, utilization, conservation strategies and local perception. Diversity 7(2):149–169

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ghosh P (2014) “Subsistence and Biodiversity Conservation in the Sundarban Biosphere Reserve, West Bengal, India.” Ph.D. diss., University of Kentucky

  • Ghosh P (2015) Conservation and conflicts in the Sundarban Biosphere Reserve, India. Geogr Rev 105(4):429–440

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ghosh A, Boyd E, (2019) Unlocking knowledge-policy action gaps in disaster-recovery-risk governance cycle: A governmentality approach, Int J Disast Risk Red 39:101236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101236

  • Ghosh A, Boykoff M (2018) Framing sustainability and climate change: Interrogating discourses in vernacular and English-language media in Sundarbans, India. Geoforum. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum

  • Gopal B, Chauhan M (2006) Biodiversity and its conservation in the Sundarban mangrove ecosystem. Aquat Sci 68:338–354

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Government of West Bengal, Directorate of Forest (1952) First Working Plan for the 24-Parganas Forest Division: 1949-50-1958-59. Vol 1. Alipore: West Bengal Government Press

  • Guha R (1990) An early environmental debate: the making of the 1878 forest act. Indian

  • Guha R (2005) The Ramachandra Guha Omnibus. Oxford University Press, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Hogarth PJ (2007) The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses: Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/publicinformation/Draft%20Ecotourism%20Guidelines%202%20June.pdf (last accessed August 18, 2016)

  • Hughes JE (2015) Royal tigers and ruling princes: wilderness and wildlife management in the Indian princely states. Mod Asian Stud 49(4):1210–1260

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Iftekhar MS (2008) Functions and development of reforested mangrove areas: a review. Int J Biodivers Sci Manag 4/1:1–14

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • IUCN (2001) International Union for the Conservation of Nature—Bangladesh: The Bangladesh Sundarbans: A Photo Real Sojourn. IUCN Bangladesh Country Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Google Scholar 

  • Jalais A (2010) Forest of Tigers: People, Politics & Environment in the Sundarbans. New

  • Johari R (2007) Of paper tigers and invisible people: the cultural politics of natural resource in Sariska. In: Shahabuddin G, Rangarajan M (eds) Making conservation work: securing biodiversity in this new century (pp. 48–77). Uttaranchal: Permanent Black

  • Kallio H, Pietilä AM, Johnson M, Kangasniemi M (2016) Systematic methodological review: developing a framework for a qualitative semi-structured interview guide. J Adv Nurs 72(12):2954–2965

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Karanth KU, Nichols JD, Seidenstricker J, Dinerstein E, Smith JLD, McDougal C, Thapar V (2003) Science deficiency in conservation practice: the monitoring of tiger populations in India. Anim Conserv 6(2):141–146

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kelly SE (2010) Qualitative interviewing techniques and styles. In: Bourgeault I, Dingwall R, De Vries R (eds) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Methods in Health Research, SAGE, London, pp. 307–327

  • Kodikara KAS, Mukherjee N, Jayatissa LP, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N (2017) Have mangrove restoration projects worked? An in-depth study in Sri Lanka. Restor Ecol 2017(25/5):705–716

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kohli A (ed) (2014) India’s democracy: an analysis of changing state-society relations (Vol. 913). Princeton University Press

  • Konijnendijk CC, Annerstedt M, Nielsen AB, Maruthaveeran S (2013) Benefits of urban parks. A systematic review. A Report for IFPRA, Copenhagen & Alnarp

  • Kristjanson P, Harvey B, Van Epp M, Thornton PK (2014) Social learning and sustainable development. Nat Clim Change 4(1):5–7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Latour B (1993) We have never been modern. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    Google Scholar 

  • Latour B (1987) Science in action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society. Harvard university press

  • Lee SY, Hamilton S, Barbier EB, Primavera J, Lewis RR (2019) Better restoration policies are needed to conserve mangrove ecosystems. Nat Ecol Evol 3:870–872

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lemos MC (2015) Usable climate knowledge for adaptive and co-managed water governance. Curr Opin Environ Sust 12:48–52

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liberati EG, Gorli M, Moja L, Galuppo L, Ripamonti S, Scaratti G (2015) Exploring the practice of patient centered care: the role of ethnography and reflexivity. Soc Sci Med 133:45–52

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loucks C, Barber-Meyer S, Hossain MAA, Barlow A, Chowdhury RM (2010) Sea level rise and tigers: predicted impacts to Bangladesh’s Sundarbans mangroves. Clim Change 98(1-2):291–298

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mantyka-Pringle CS, Visconti P, Di Marco M, Martin TG, Rondinini C, Rhodes JR (2015) Climate change modifies risk of global biodiversity loss due to land-cover change. Biol Conserv 187:103–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Margulies JD (2019) Making the ‘man-eater’: tiger conservation as necropolitics. Political Geogr 69:150161

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mason J (2004) Semistructured interview. In: Lewis-Beck MS, Bryman A, Futin Liao E (eds) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods (pp. 1021–1022), SAGE, Thousand Oaks, London

  • Matta JR (2009) Rebuilding rural India: potential for further investments in forestry and green jobs. Unasylva 233(60):36–41

    Google Scholar 

  • Matyas D, Pelling M (2015) Positioning resilience for 2015: the role of resistance, incremental adjustment and transformation in disaster risk management policy. Disasters 39(s1):s1–s18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mitra A, Gangopadhyay A, Dube A, Schmidt AC, Banerjee K (2009) Observed changes in water mass properties in the Indian Sundarbans (northwestern Bay of Bengal) during 1980–2007. Curr Sci 97(10):1445–1452

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mitra A, Sengupta K, Banerjee K (2011) Standing biomass and carbon storage of above-ground structures in dominant mangrove trees in the Sundarbans. For Ecol Manag 261(7):1325–1335

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mukherjee K, (2020) Lockdown, Amphan trigger rise in Sunderbans man-tiger conflicts, August 24, 2020 https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kolkata/lockdown-amphan-trigger-rise-in-sunderbans-man-tiger-conflict/articleshow/77709495.cms. Accessed on January17, 2021

  • Mukhopadhyay A (2016) Living with Disasters. Cambridge University Press

  • Naha D, Jhala YV, Qureshi Q, Roy M, Sankar K, Gopal R (2016) Ranging, activity and habitat use by tigers in the mangrove forests of the Sundarban. PLoS One 11(4):e0152119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nandy S, Bandopadhyay S (2011) Trend of sea level change in the Hugli estuary, India. Indian J Geo-Mar Sci 40(6):802–812

    Google Scholar 

  • Neogi, SB, Dey, M, Lutful Kabir, SM, Masum, SJH, Kopprio, GA, Yamasaki, S, & Lara, RJ (2016). Sundarban mangroves: diversity, ecosystem services and climate change impacts

  • O’Reilly, M, & Parker, N (2012, May). Unsatisfactory saturation: a critical exploration of the notion of saturated sample sizes in qualitative research. Qualit Res J, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794112446106

  • Ostrom E (1999) Coping with tragedies of the commons. Annu Rev Polit Sci 2(1):493–535

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pandit PK (2014) Human-tiger conflict in Sundarban Tiger Reserve and its mitigation through management strategies in India. Tigerpaper 41(4):1–9

    Google Scholar 

  • Peluso NL (1993) Coercing conservation: the politics of state resource control. Glob Environ Change 3(2):199–218

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pereira HM, Leadley PW, Proença V, Alkemade R, Scharlemann JPW, Fernandez-Manjarrés JF, Araújo MB et al. (2010) “Scenarios for global biodiversity in the 21st century”. Science 330(6010):1496–1501

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pillow W(2003) Confession, catharsis, or cure? Rethinking the uses of reflexivity as methodological power in qualitative research Int J Qual Stud Educ 16(2):175–196

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pillow WS (2010) Dangerous reflexivity Rigour, responsibility and reflexivity in qualitative research. In: The Routledge Doctoral Student’s Companion (pp. 288–300). Routledge

  • Plieninger T, Bieling C, Fagerholm N, Byg A, Hartel T, Hurley P, López-Santiago CA, Nagabhatla N, Oteros-Rozas E, Raymond CM, van der Horst D (2015) The role of cultural ecosystem services in landscape management and planning. Curr Opin Environ Sustainability 14:28–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Porter J, Dessai S (2016) Is co-producing science for adaptation decision-making a risk worth taking? Research Institute Paper, (96)

  • Prakash S, Srivastava S (2019) Impact of climate change on biodiversity: an overview

  • Presler F (1991) Forest management in the Sundarbans, 1875-1952. In: Seidensticker J, Kurin R, Townsend AK (eds) The commons in South Asia: societal pressures and environmental integrity in the Sundarbans of Bangladesh: Proceedings from a workshop held in Washington, D.C. 20-21 November 1987, 159-179. The International Center, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC

  • Primavera J, Esteban J (2008) A review of mangrove rehabilitation in the Philippines: successes, failures and future prospects. Wetl Ecol Manag 16/5:345–358

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raha A, Das S, Banerjee K, Mitra A (2012) Climate change impacts on Indian Sunderbans: a time series analysis (1924–2008). Biodivers Conserv 21(5):1289–1307

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rahman MA (1990) A comprehensive report on sundry (Heritierafomes) trees with particular reference to top dying in the Sundarbans. In: Rahman MA, Khandakar MA, Ahmed FU, Ali MO (eds) Seminar on Top Dying of Sundri (Heritierafomes) Trees, 256. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka, Bangladesh

  • Rahman MM, Vacik H (2016) Recruitment of invasive plant species in the Sundarbans following tropical Cyclone Aila. American Geophysical Union, 2016, A54B-A52709

  • Rahman S, Rahman H, Shahid S, Khan RU, Jahan N, Ahmed ZU, Khanum R, Ahmed MF, Mohsenipour M (2017) The impact of cyclone Aila on the Sundarban forest ecosystem. Int J Ecol Dev 32(1):87–97

    Google Scholar 

  • Rao KS, Nautiyal S, Maikhuri RK, Saxena KG (2003) Local peoples’ knowledge, aptitude and perceptions of planning and management issues in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India. Environ Manag 31(2):0168–0181

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ray R, Ganguly D, Chowdhury C, Dey M, Das S, Dutta MK, Jana TK (2011) Carbon sequestration and annual increase of carbon stock in a mangrove forest. Atmos Environ 45(28):5016–5024

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Reed M, Evely AC, Cundill G, Fazey IRA, Glass J, Laing A, Stringer L (2010) What is social learning? Ecology and Society

  • Reid WV (2005) Millennium ecosystem assessment. World Resources Institutions

  • Rinawati F, Stein K, Lindner A (2013) Climate change impacts on biodiversity—the setting of a lingering global crisis. Diversity 5(1):114–123

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robbins P (2000) The practical politics of knowing: state environmental knowledge and local political economy Econ Geogr 76(2):126–144

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rocheleau DE (2008) Political ecology in the key of policy: from chains of explanation to webs of relation. Geoforum 39(2):716–727

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roy M, Qureshi Q, Naha D, Sankar K, Gopal R, Jhala YV (2016) Demystifying the Sundarban tiger: novel application of conventional population estimation methods in a unique ecosystem. Popul Ecol 58(1):81–89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rubin HJ, Rubin IS (2005) Qualitative interviewing: the art of hearing the data, 2nd edn. SAGE, Thousand Oaks, CA

  • Rudra K (2014) Changing river courses in the western part of the Ganga–Brahmaputra delta. Geomorphology 227:87–100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rudra K (2015) Ref: Changing river courses in the western part of the Ganga–Brahmaputra delta by Kalyan Rudra (2014), Geomorphology, 227, 87–100. Geomorphology, 250, 454–458

  • RWJF (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation) (2008) Semi-structured Interviews. Retrieved from http://www.qualres.org/HomeSemi3629.html. Accessed on 16 April 2015

  • Saberwal VK, Rangarajan M (eds) (2003) Battles over nature: science and the politics of conservation. Permanent Black, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Sarkar SC (2010) The Sundarbans: folk deities, monsters and mortals. Berghahn Books

  • Sarkar S (2021) Rapid assessment of cyclone damage using NPP-VIIRS DNB and ancillary data. Nat hazards 106(1):579–593

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sathyamurthy TV (1989) Impact of centre-state relations on indian politics: An interpretative reckoning, 1947–87. Econ Polit Weekly, 2133–2147

  • Scoones I (1998) Sustainable rural livelihoods: a framework for analysis. Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, England

    Google Scholar 

  • Selvam V (2003) Environmental classification of mangrove wetlands of India. Curr Sci 84(6):757–765

    Google Scholar 

  • Sen A, Pattanaik S (2019) The political agenda of implementing Forest Rights Act 2006: evidences from Indian Sundarban. Environ Dev Sustain 21(5):2355–2376

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh SK, Mishra S, Aspi J, Kvist L, Nigam P, Pandey P, Goyal SP (2015) Tigers of Sundarbans in India: is the population a separate conservation unit? PloS ONE 10(4):e0118846

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sovacool BK (2018) Bamboo beating bandits: conflict, inequality, and vulnerability in the political ecology of climate change adaptation in Bangladesh. World Dev 102:183–194

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan S (2013) Banking nature? The spectacular financialization of environmental conservation. Antipode 45(1):198–217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor M (2015) The political ecology of climate change adaptation: livelihoods, agrarian change and the conflicts of development. Earthscan, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Tschakert P (2012) From impacts to embodied experiences: tracing political ecology in climate change research. Dan J Geogr 112:144–158

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Dijk TA (2000) New (s) racism: a discourse analytical approach. Ethnic minorities and the media, 33–49

  • Wengraf T (2001) Qualitative research interviewing: biographic narrative and semi-structured methods. SAGE, London

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Whitehead AL, Kujala H, Ives CD, Gordon A, Lentini PE, Wintle BA, Nicholson E, Raymond CM (2014) Integrating biological and social values when prioritizing places for biodiversity conservation. Conserv biol 28(4):992–1003

  • Yeh E, Nyima Y, Hopping K, Klein J (2014) Tibetan pastoralists’ vulnerability to climate change: a political ecology analysis of snowstorm coping capacity. Hum Ecol, 42, 61–74 York: Routledge

  • Zaman S, Bhattacharyya SB, Pramanick P, Raha AK, Chakraborty S, Mitra A (2013) Rising water salinity: a threat to mangroves of Indian Sundarbans. In: Abedin MA, Habiba U, Shaw R (eds) Water insecurity: a social dilemma, 167–183. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Economic and Social History Review 27(1):65–84

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Aditya Ghosh.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ghosh, A., Sen, A., Dutta, K. et al. Falling “fortresses”: Unlocking Governance Entanglements and Shifting Knowledge Paradigms to Counter Climate Change Threats in Biodiversity Conservation. Environmental Management 69, 305–322 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-021-01552-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-021-01552-0

Keywords

Navigation