The purposes of this study is to show the corporate characteristics of companies which have been operating in the fields of small-scale treatment plants’ (SSTPs’) design, construction, and installation processes, and to exhibit findings/perceptions of company employees on issues such as the initial investment and operating costs, common production and operating problems, the functionality of the small-scale treatment systems and the added value they provide to their customers’ facilities. As a result of this study, it was determined that when the personnel participating in the survey were directly trained and recruited by the companies, which is generally the case, their training includes more practical methods and their experiences are shaped by the master-apprentice relationships in the sector. Regarding water treatment in SSTPs, the companies surveyed opted for traditional methods such as reverse osmosis and coagulation-flocculation, and preferred to use traditional biological treatment units—continuous flow or sequencing batch reactors (SBRs)- in wastewater treatment. In favor of businesses in need of water and wastewater management systems, the surveyed company employees have considered SSTPs as a successful, competitive advantage in the industry by maintaining low initial investment and operational costs while fulfilling the relevant environmental legal obligations. After examining the data regarding the opinions of company employees about SSTPs, it was found that there is a very significant relationship between the problems experienced during the installation/construction process and the problems during their operation.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Altin S, Altin A (2014) Study on the expectancies and benefits of companies from the ISO 14001 certification process. Glob J Pure Appl Sci 3:23–29
Carvalho P, Marques RC (2014) Computing economies of vertical integration, economies of scope and economies of scale using partial frontier nonparametric methods. Eur J Oper Res 234:292–307
Cesaroni G, Giovannola D (2015) Average-cost efficiency and optimal scale sizes in nonparametric analysis. Eur J Oper Res 242:121–133
Chatterjee S, Hadi AS (2012) Regression analysis by example, 5th edn. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey
Cohen J, Cohen P, West SG, Aiken LS (2013) Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum, New Jersey
Coolidge F (2013) Statistics: a gentle introduction, 3rd edn. SAGE, London
Cossio C, McConville J, Rauch S, Wilén BM, Dalahmeh S, Mercado A, Romero AM (2018) Wastewater management in small towns–understanding the failure of small treatment plants in Bolivia. Environ Technol 39(11):1393–1403
Cossio C, Norrman J, McConville J, Mercado A, Rauch S (2020) Indicators for sustainability assessment of small-scale wastewater treatment plants in low and lower-middle income countries. Environ Sustain Indic 6:100028
Gallego A, Hospido A, Moreira MT, Feijoo G (2008) Environmental performance of wastewater treatment plants for small populations. Resour Conserv Recy 52(6):931–940
Gautam S, Ahmed S, Dhingra A, Fatima Z (2017) Cost-effective treatment technology for small size sewage treatment plants in India. J Sci Ind Res 76:249–254
Guerrini A, Romano G, Leardini C, Martini M (2015) Measuring the efficiency of wastewater services through data envelopment analysis. Water Sci Technol 71:1845–1851
Hajjar ST (2018) Statistical analysis: internal-consistency reliability and construct validity. IJQQRM 6(1):46–57
Hernández-Chover V, Bellver-Domingo Á, Hernández-Sancho F (2018) Efficiency of wastewater treatment facilities: the influence of scale economies. J Environ Manag 228:77–84
Jain S, Chourse S, Dubey S, Jain S, Kamakoty J, Jain D (2016) Regression analysis–its formulation and execution in dentistry. J Appl Dent 2(1):199–208
Kleimbaum DG, Lawrence LK, Azhar N, Rosenberg ES (2014) Applied regression analysis and multivariable methods. Thomson, Boston
Langergraber G, Pressl A, Kretschmer F, Weissenbacher N (2018) Small wastewater treatment plants in Austria—technologies, management and training of operators. Ecol Eng 120:164–169
Lundin M, Bengtsson M, Molander S (2000) Life cycle assessment of wastewater systems: influence of system boundaries and scale on calculated environmental loads. Environ Sci Technol 34(1):180–186
Molinos-Senante M, Hernández-Sancho F, Sala-Garrido R (2013) Benchmarking in wastewater treatment plants: a tool to save operational costs. Clean Technol Environ Policy 16:149–161
Mukaka MM (2012) Statistics corner: a guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi Med J 24(3):69–71
Murmura F, Liberatore L, Bravi L, Casolani N (2018) Evaluation of Italian companies’ perception about ISO 14001 and eco management and audit scheme III: motivations, benefits and barriers. J Clean Prod 174:691–700
Pearse N (2011) Deciding on the scale granularity of response categories of Likert type scales: the case of a 21-point scale. Electron J Bus Res Methods 9(2):159–171
Preziosi M, Merli R, D’amico M (2016) Why companies do not renew their EMAS Registration? An exploratory research. Sustainability 8(2):191–202
Ren X, Shon HK, Jang N, Lee YG, Bae M, Lee J, Kwangmyeung C, Kim IS (2010) Novel Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) coupled with a nonwoven fabric filter for household wastewater treatment. Water Res 44(3):751–760
Sauro J, Lewis JR (2012) Quantifying the user experience: practical statistics for user research. 2nd edition. Morgan Kaufman, Massachusetts
Schroeder LD, Sjoquist DL, Stephan PE (1986) Understanding regression analysis: an introductory guide. SAGE, California
Senthilnathan S (2019) Usefulness of correlation analysis, SSRN. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3416918. Accessed 26 June 2020
Tavakol M, Dennick R (2011) Making sense of Cronbach’s Alpha. Int J Med Educ 2:53–55
TOBB (2017) The Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey, Industrial Capacity Report Statistics. http://sanayi.tobb.org.tr/resmi_istatistik.php. Accessed 5 May 2017
Tongco MDC (2007) Purposive sampling as a tool for informant selection. Ethnobot Res Appl 5:147–158
Vehovar V, Toepoel V, Steinmetz S (2016) Non-probability sampling. In: Wolf C, et al. (ed) The Sage handbook of survey methods, 1st edn. SAGE, London, p 329–345
Vidal N, Poch M, Marti E, Rodriguez-Roda I (2002) Evaluation on the environmental implications to include structural changes in a wastewater treatment plant. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 77:1206–1211
Zacks S (2012) Introduction to reliability analysis: probability models and statistical methods. Springer, New York
No funding support was used in this study. The authors would like to thank Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University officials for providing information access.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Altin, A., Uysal, H.T. & Altin, S. The Small-Scale Treatment Plant Industry: Institutional Features of Companies, Problems and Functionality of Small-Scale Treatment Systems. Environmental Management 67, 468–476 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-020-01388-0
- Small-scale treatment plants
- Water and wastewater sector
- Producing treatment systems
- Employees’ thoughts