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From Conflict to Cooperation: A Macromarketing View of Sustainable and Inclusive Development in Lebanon and the Middle East

Abstract

Since the beginning of the Syrian war, Lebanon has experienced a major population change and has become the country with the highest number of refugees per capita. The authors apply a macromarketing perspective to study the effects of this population growth on the environmental management of Lebanon, with implications for the Levant and broader Middle East. An analysis of several factors, including geography, climate, population, economics, and politics, offers a holistic and integrative assessment of resource management, quality-of-life (QOL), economic diversification, and inclusive employment. Attention is given to social dilemmas in Lebanon’s consociational politics, and how these dilemmas may be affecting policy making and ultimately sustainable development—locally, nationally, and regionally. The authors share a systemic framework to facilitate understanding and solutions via cooperation and constructive engagement of catalytic institutions, consideration for all stakeholders, and innovative projects that include refugees for best practices to promote sustainable and equitable development, and ultimately peace and prosperity in Lebanon and the Middle East.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank the editor and anonymous reviewers for encouragement and helpful comments that were vital to the development and improvement of the manuscript published as this article. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

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All authors contributed to the conception, design, and administration of this study. The first draft of the manuscript was written by BDQN. All authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript; all authors read, contributed to and approved the final iteration of the manuscript published as this article.

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Correspondence to Beatriz DeQuero-Navarro.

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DeQuero-Navarro, B., Aoun Barakat, K., Shultz, C.J. et al. From Conflict to Cooperation: A Macromarketing View of Sustainable and Inclusive Development in Lebanon and the Middle East. Environmental Management 66, 232–247 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-020-01300-w

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-020-01300-w

Keywords

  • Sustainable development
  • Refugees
  • Lebanon
  • Resource management
  • Syrian crisis
  • Macromarketing